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Research Papers

Tissue Cutting With Microserrated Biopsy Punches

[+] Author and Article Information
Marco Giovannini

Department of Mechanical Engineering,
Northwestern University,
2145 Sheridan Road,
Evanston, IL 60208
e-mail: marcogiovannini2013@u.northwestern.edu

Huaqing Ren

Department of Mechanical Engineering,
Northwestern University,
2145 Sheridan Road,
Evanston, IL 60208
e-mail: huaqingren2013@u.northwestern.edu

Xingsheng Wang

College of Engineering,
Nanjing Agricultural University,
40 Dianjiangtai Road,
Nanjing 210031, China
e-mail: wangxingsheng1987@163.com

Kornel Ehmann

Mem. ASME
Department of Mechanical Engineering,
Northwestern University,
2145 Sheridan Road,
Evanston, IL 60208
e-mail: k-ehmann@northwestern.edu

Contributed by the Manufacturing Engineering Division of ASME for publication in the JOURNAL OF MICRO- AND NANO-MANUFACTURING. Manuscript received March 16, 2017; final manuscript received August 7, 2017; published online September 28, 2017. Assoc. Editor: Stefan Dimov.

J. Micro Nano-Manuf 5(4), 041004 (Sep 28, 2017) (8 pages) Paper No: JMNM-17-1009; doi: 10.1115/1.4037726 History: Received March 16, 2017; Revised August 07, 2017

This paper investigates the application of bioinspired serrated cutting edges in tissue cutting by biopsy punches (BPs) to reduce the insertion force. BPs are frequently used as a diagnostic tool in many minimally invasive procedures, for both tissue extraction and the delivery of medical fluids. The proposed work is inspired by the mosquito's maxilla that features microserrations on its cutting edges with the purpose of painlessly puncturing the human skin. The objective of this paper is to study the application of maxillalike microserrations on commercial BPs. The fundamental goal is the minimization of the puncture force at the BP tip during insertion procedures. Microserrations were created on the cutting edge by using a picosecond laser while cutting tests were implemented on a customized testbed on phantom tissue. A reduction of 20–30% in the insertion forces has been achieved with microserrated punches with different texture depths encouraging, thereby, further studies and applications in biomedical devices. Three-dimensional (3D) and two-dimensional (2D) finite element simulations were also developed to investigate the impact of microserrated cutting edges on the stresses in the contact area during soft tissue cutting.

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Figures

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Fig. 1

Laser system. The five axes of the positioning system (X, Y, Z, B, and C) and the main components of the laser system are highlighted.

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Fig. 2

Schematics of BP cannula: (a) Computer-aided design model and (b) cross section showing the inner diameter (d), outer diameter (D), total length (L), bevel length (l), cutting tip radius (r), and included angle (θ)

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Fig. 3

Laser path for generating serrations along the BP tip (a) and the geometry of the microserrations (b)

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Fig. 4

Optical image of microserrations generated on BP cutting tip. The external diameter is equal to 2.4 mm and internal diameter to 2 mm, while the arc radius for BP microserration is equal to 400 μm.

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Fig. 5

3D geometrical model of a standard (a) and microserrated BP (b). The contact area at the BP tip is highlighted.

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Fig. 6

Testbed for cutting tests

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Fig. 7

Axial force for a commercial BP highlighting the different penetration phases (I, II, III, and IV)

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Fig. 8

Axial force at puncture for a standard BP with and without C4 microserrations (Table 1) at an insertion speed of 0.25 mm/s

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Fig. 9

Mean value and error bar of puncture force for standard and textured BPs with different microserration radii rc (Fig. 3)

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Fig. 10

3D finite element model of BP insertion. The mesh of the BP and of the soft tissue is shown in the top view (a), 3D view (b), and side view (c). The mesh is refined in the proximity of the microserrations (d).

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Fig. 11

Contour plot of maximum principal stress for the insertion of a standard BP ((a) and (b)) and a microserrated BP ((c) and (d)). In the zoomed area ((b) and (d)), the BP cutting edge is hidden in order to show the stress distribution in the contact area.

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Fig. 12

Comparison of axial forces obtained from the experimental measurements and from the finite element simulation for standard and serrated BPs

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Fig. 13

2D finite element model of BP insertion. The mesh and geometrical dimensions of the model are highlighted.

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Fig. 14

Contour plot of maximum principal stress related to the insertion of a BP characterized by a microserration radius of 50 μm ((a) and (b)) and by a microserration radius of 400 μm ((c) and (d))

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