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Research Papers

On the Acceleration Limits for Sliding and Detachment Between Contacting Rough Surfaces for Micropart Manipulation in a Dry Environment

[+] Author and Article Information
Panos S. Shiakolas

e-mail: shiakolas@uta.edu
Mechanical and Aerospace
Engineering Department,
The University of Texas at Arlington,
Arlington, TX 76019

1Corresponding author.

Contributed by the Manufacturing Engineering Division of ASME for publication in the JOURNAL OF MICRO AND NANO-MANUFACTURING. Manuscript received April 19, 2012; final manuscript received January 3, 2013; published online March 26, 2013. Assoc. Editor: Brad Nelson.

J. Micro Nano-Manuf 1(1), 011005 (Mar 26, 2013) (8 pages) Paper No: JMNM-12-1025; doi: 10.1115/1.4023531 History: Received April 19, 2012; Revised January 03, 2013

Micropart manipulation is an active research area encompassing a wide array of fields and applications. As the size of the parts to be manipulated by an automated system decreases, the dominant forces are different compared to macroscale ones. Thus, for accurately modeling and evaluating the motion dynamics of a micropart, microscale forces and their effects must be considered. This manuscript employs a nanomicroscale friction model based on the Kogut–Etsion model that along with microscale forces considers surface roughness and material hardness properties to identify the acceleration threshold that would cause a micropart to start sliding on a carrier surface or vertically detach from the carrier surface during gripperless manipulation in a dry environment. The microscale forces change significantly as a function of the surface roughness of the two contacting surfaces. The results indicate that there will always be critical acceleration values below which no sliding or detachment takes place. Also, for the same model parameters, the sliding acceleration is smaller than the detachment acceleration for softer materials and larger for harder materials. The sliding acceleration threshold is more sensitive to hardness changes at smaller surface roughness values as compared to larger surface roughness values. The material hardness has no effect on the detachment acceleration for the same surface roughness values. The knowledge of the acceleration thresholds and their relative magnitudes could be advantageously employed for the development of gripperless manipulation approaches for microcomponent or microdevice handling or for the development of microconveyor platforms for controlled micropart translocation.

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Figures

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Fig. 1

(a) Sliding input acceleration and the horizontal force balance and (b) normal input acceleration and vertical force balance

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Fig. 2

Equivalent rough surface in contact with flat surface. Dotted line shows the original asperity profile where solid line shows the profile after compression. The compressed asperity has profile Z = f(r) [10].

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Fig. 3

(a) Forces (N) versus separation distance (nm) (forces: applied load = attraction load minus asperity reaction load) and (b) friction force (N) versus separation distance (nm)

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Fig. 4

Sliding threshold case: applied load (N) versus acceleration (m/s2). (a) Linear and (b) semilogarithmic (zoom in region 0–5 × 104). Even with a zero applied load the friction force is not zero. A finite value of acceleration is required to move the micropart.

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Fig. 5

Threshold acceleration for sliding and detachment as function of surface roughness for a (LWH) 100 × 100 × 10 μm3 steel micropart on a steel surface

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Fig. 6

(a) Variation of sliding threshold with the change of surface roughness for a series of surface hardness values and (b) variation of contact area with the change of surface roughness for H = 2 GPa

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Fig. 7

(a) Variation of applied load as function of separation distance with the change of material hardness and (b) elastic contact area as function of material hardness

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Fig. 8

Schematic of micromanipulation approach; hf is the length of stroke and WL is the wavelength (equal to the actuator spacing) [10]

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