Due to its light weight, high creep, and wear resistance, magnesium metal matrix composites (Mg-MMCs) with nanosized reinforcements are promising for various industrial applications, especially those with high volume fractions of reinforcements. The machinability of Mg-MMCs and related cutting process modeling are important to study. In this paper, an analytical cutting force model is developed to predict cutting forces of Mg-MMC reinforced with SiC nanoparticles in micromilling process. This model is different from previous ones by encompassing the behaviors of nanoparticle reinforcements in three cutting scenarios, i.e., shearing, ploughing, and elastic recovery. By using the enhanced yield strength in the cutting force model, three major strengthening factors are incorporated, including load-bearing effect, enhanced dislocation density strengthening effect, and Orowan strengthening effect. In this way, material properties, such as the particle size and volume fraction as significant factors affecting the cutting forces, are explicitly considered. To validate the model, experiments based on various cutting conditions using two types of end mills (diameters as 100 μm and 1 mm) were conducted on pure Mg, Mg-MMCs with volume fractions of 5 vol. %, 10 vol. %, and 15 vol. %. The experimental results show a good agreement with the predicted cutting force value.