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Research Papers

Fabrication Technology of Low-Adhesive Superhydrophobic and Superamphiphobic Surfaces Based on Electrochemical Machining Method

[+] Author and Article Information
Jinlong Song

e-mail: songjinlong1987@163.com

Wenji Xu

e-mail: wenjixu@dlut.edu.cn

Yao Lu

e-mail: luciolu@126.com
Key Laboratory for Precision and Non-traditional
Machining Technology for Ministry of Education,
Dalian University of Technology,
Dalian 116024, China

Limei Luo

Analysis Center,
School of Chemical Engineering,
Dalian University of Technology,
Dalian 116012, China
e-mail: luolimei2008@yahoo.cn

Xin Liu

e-mail: xinliu@mail.dlut.edu.cn

Zefei Wei

e-mail: weizefei@163.com
Key Laboratory for Precision and Non-traditional
Machining Technology for Ministry of Education,
Dalian University of Technology,
Dalian 116024, China

1Corresponding author.

Contributed by the Manufacturing Engineering Division of ASME for publication in the JOURNAL OF MICRO- AND NANO-MANUFACTURING. Manuscript received August 30, 2012; final manuscript received March 20, 2013; published online April 22, 2013. Assoc. Editor: Hitoshi Ohmori.

J. Micro Nano-Manuf 1(2), 021003 (Apr 22, 2013) (7 pages) Paper No: JMNM-12-1049; doi: 10.1115/1.4024098 History: Received August 30, 2012; Revised March 20, 2013

Low-adhesive superhydrophobic and superamphiphobic (both superhydrophobic and superoleophobic) surfaces with a liquid contact angle larger than 150 deg and rolling angle less than 10 deg have attracted great interest for fundamental research and potential application. However, the existing methods to fabricate the aforementioned surfaces are contaminative, dangerous, expensive, and time-consuming. Low-adhesive superhydrophobic surfaces on aluminum substrates and steel substrates were fabricated via electrochemical etching method and electrochemical deposition method, respectively. Low-adhesive superamphiphobic surfaces on magnesium alloy substrates were fabricated via one-step electrochemical etching method. The sample surfaces were investigated using electron microscopy, energy-dispersive X-ray spectroscopy (EDS), Fourier-transform infrared spectrophotometry (FTIR), X-ray diffraction (XRD), optical contact angle measurements, and digital roughness and microhardness measurements. The SEM results show that the hierarchical rough structures composed of micrometer-scale pits, protrusions, rectangular-shaped plateaus, and smaller step-like structures and particles are present on the aluminum surfaces after electrochemical etching; meanwhile, the hierarchical micro/nanometer-scale rough structures composed of micrometer-scale globular structures and nanometer-scale SiO2 particles are present on the steel surfaces. After being modified with a low surface energy material, superhydrophobic surfaces on aluminum substrates with 167.0 deg water contact angle and 2 deg rolling angle and superhydrophobic surfaces on steel substrates with 172.9 deg water contact angle and 1 deg rolling angle are obtained. For magnesium alloy, the hierarchical micro/nanometer-scale rough structures composed of micrometer-scale, grain-like structures, protrusions, pits, globular structures, lump-like structures, and nanometer-scale sheets and needles are present on the magnesium alloy surfaces. After obtaining the hierarchical micro/nanometer-scale rough structures, the magnesium alloy surfaces directly show a superamphiphobicity without any chemical modification. The hierarchical rough structures are essential to fabricate superhydrophobic surfaces. In addition, the re-entrant structures are important to fabricate superamphiphobic surfaces. Furthermore, the proposed electrochemical machining method is simple, economic, and highly effective.

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References

Figures

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Fig. 1

Contact angle θ of a liquid droplet on an ideal solid surface

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Fig. 2

Behavior of a liquid drop on a rough surface: (a) liquid penetrates into the grooves (Wenzel state) and (b) liquid suspends on the grooves (Cassie–Baxter state)

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Fig. 3

Schematic representation of the experimental setup using electrochemical etching method

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Fig. 4

Schematic representation of the experimental setup using brush-plating technique

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Fig. 5

Schematic representation of the experimental setup using one-step electrochemical etching method

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Fig. 6

SEM images of (a) and (b) untreated aluminum surfaces and (c) and (d) electrochemically etched aluminum surfaces obtained at the 20-mA/cm2 processing current density and 150-min processing time

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Fig. 7

Images of water droplets (5 μL) on: (a) untreated aluminum surfaces, (b) FAS-modified aluminum surfaces, (c) electrochemically etched aluminum surfaces, and (d) electrochemically etched and FAS-modified aluminum surfaces

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Fig. 8

SEM images of Ni-SiO2 nanocomposite coatings obtained at the 20 -V brush-plating voltage, 2-min brush-plating time, and 8 -m/min movement velocity between the brush and the substrates

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Fig. 9

The surface remained superhydrophobic upon being touched by a finger, proven by a mirror-like phenomenon and a high-water contact angle

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Fig. 10

SEM images of electrochemically etched magnesium alloy surfaces obtained at 60 -V processing voltage and 30-min processing time

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Fig. 11

XRD patterns of (a) untreated magnesium alloy and (b) electrochemically etched magnesium alloy surfaces

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Fig. 12

EDS spectrum of electrochemically etched magnesium alloy surfaces

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Fig. 13

FTIR spectra of (a) PFA and (b) electrochemically etched magnesium alloy surfaces

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Fig. 14

Images of (a) water, (b) glycerol, (c) peanut oil, and (d) hexadecane droplets (5 μL) on electrochemically etched magnesium alloy surfaces

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