Transient liquid phase (TLP) bonding of Cu structures with a thin elemental Al intermediate bonding layer is being used to assemble Cu-based, enclosed, microchannel heat exchangers (MHEs). The heterogeneous Cu/Al/Cu TLP bonding interface region, formed during the TLP bonding process, impacts heat transfer of the assembled MHE device. To evaluate the thermal resistance of TLP bonded Cu/Al/Cu interface regions, transient flash measurements were performed across bonding interface regions formed under various conditions, in combination with detailed structural examination and measurements of bulk mass density and specific heat. The flash method is shown to yield quantitative measurements of interfacial thermal resistance values. Our results provide guidance to developing bonding protocols for Cu-based MHEs with optimized heat transfer performance.