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Research Papers

An Experimental Investigation on the Fabrication of Micro/Meso Surface Features by Metallic Roll-to-Plate Imprinting Process

[+] Author and Article Information
Peiyun Yi

State Key Laboratory of Mechanical
System and Vibration,
Shanghai Jiao Tong University,
Shanghai 200240, China

Xinmin Lai

State Key Laboratory of Mechanical
System and Vibration,
Shanghai Jiao Tong University,
Shanghai 200240, China;
Shanghai Key Laboratory of Digital Manufacture
for Thin-walled Structures,
Shanghai Jiao Tong University,
Shanghai 200240, China
e-mail: xmlai@sjtu.edu.cn

1Corresponding author.

Contributed by the Manufacturing Engineering Division of ASME for publication in the JOURNAL OF Micro- AND Nano-Manufacturing. Manuscript received November 4, 2012; final manuscript received May 27, 2013; published online August 13, 2013. Editor: Jian Cao.

J. Micro Nano-Manuf 1(3), 031004 (Aug 13, 2013) (10 pages) Paper No: JMNM-12-1074; doi: 10.1115/1.4024985 History: Received November 04, 2012; Revised May 27, 2013

Metallic components with large-area functional surface micro/mesostructures have been increasingly utilized in various industrial fields, such as friction/wear reduction, viscous drag reduction, and energy efficiency enhancement. Roll-to-plate (R2P) imprinting process is an efficient and economical method in fabricating micro/mesofeatures on the large-area surface of the metal parts. However, process design methods based on scale law cannot be directly used due to size effects. Its formability is greatly influenced by tool feature size and material grain size. In this study, a lab-scale R2P imprinting system was developed to fabricate the microsructures on the surface of metallic materials. The specimens of pure aluminum and pure copper with various size grains were prepared. Rigid die with geometric dimensions was fabricated and series of experiments were conducted. The microfeature height of the imprinted workpiece was measured to evaluate the effects of tool feature dimensions (width, spacing, and fillet) and metal grain sizes. It is found that the groove width and fillet had more significant effect on the microfeature formation among the die cavity geometric parameters. Wider groove could enhance the microforming ability and large fillet could improve the flowing ability. From the viewpoint of polycrystalline material, grain structures significantly affected the microfeature formation. When the grain size was smaller than the groove width, the material flowed more easily into the die cavity with increasing of the grain size because of the decrease of grain boundary strengthening effect.

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Figures

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Fig. 1

Grain structure of pure aluminum along the thickness direction of sheet after annealing: (a) 400 °C, d = 50 μm and (b) 600 °C, d = 90 μm

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Fig. 2

Grain structure of pure copper along the thickness direction of sheet after annealing: (a) 700 °C, d = 35 μm, (b) 800 °C, d = 130 μm, and (c) 900 °C, d = 220 μm

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Fig. 3

Dimension and photograph of tensile specimen: (a) sketch of the specimen (units in mm) and (b) photograph of the specimen

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Fig. 4

Self-developed micro/meso R2P imprinting process system: (a) schematic of micro/meso R2P imprinting process and (b) micro/meso R2P imprinting system and flat die

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Fig. 5

2D and 3D scanned image of surface feature 2 on the flat die. (W = 0.4 mm, S = 1 mm, R = 0.2 mm)

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Fig. 6

Experimental results: (a) photograph of imprinted 1.5 mm-thick pure copper sheet (d = 35 μm) and (b) scanned 2D–3D image of imprinted pure copper specimens (d = 35 μm, RD = 0.55 mm)

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Fig. 7

Response of the rolling force with the rolling depth. (pure aluminum: d = 50 μm, pure copper: d = 35 μm)

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Fig. 8

Effect of groove width: (a) S = 0.8 mm, R = 0.1 mm and (b) S = 1.2 mm, R = 0.3 mm

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Fig. 9

Effect of fillet: (a) W = 0.4 mm, (b) W = 0.6 mm, and (c) W = 0.8 mm

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Fig. 10

Effect of grain sizes in feature formation (pure aluminum)

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Fig. 11

Effect of grain sizes in feature formation (pure copper)

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Fig. 12

Grain deformation of pure aluminum specimen, d = 50 μm: (a) F1, RD = 0.25 mm, (b) F1, RD = 0.55 mm; d = 90 μm: (c) F1, RD = 0.25 mm, and (d) F1, RD = 0.55 mm

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Fig. 13

Grain deformation of pure copper specimen, d = 35 μm: (a) F1, RD = 0.25 mm, (b) F1, RD = 0.55 mm; d = 220 μm: (c) F1, RD = 0.25 mm, and (d) F1, RD = 0.55 mm

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