Research Papers

An Experimental Investigation on the Fabrication of Micro/Meso Surface Features by Metallic Roll-to-Plate Imprinting Process

[+] Author and Article Information
Peiyun Yi

State Key Laboratory of Mechanical
System and Vibration,
Shanghai Jiao Tong University,
Shanghai 200240, China

Xinmin Lai

State Key Laboratory of Mechanical
System and Vibration,
Shanghai Jiao Tong University,
Shanghai 200240, China;
Shanghai Key Laboratory of Digital Manufacture
for Thin-walled Structures,
Shanghai Jiao Tong University,
Shanghai 200240, China
e-mail: xmlai@sjtu.edu.cn

1Corresponding author.

Contributed by the Manufacturing Engineering Division of ASME for publication in the JOURNAL OF Micro- AND Nano-Manufacturing. Manuscript received November 4, 2012; final manuscript received May 27, 2013; published online August 13, 2013. Editor: Jian Cao.

J. Micro Nano-Manuf 1(3), 031004 (Aug 13, 2013) (10 pages) Paper No: JMNM-12-1074; doi: 10.1115/1.4024985 History: Received November 04, 2012; Revised May 27, 2013

Metallic components with large-area functional surface micro/mesostructures have been increasingly utilized in various industrial fields, such as friction/wear reduction, viscous drag reduction, and energy efficiency enhancement. Roll-to-plate (R2P) imprinting process is an efficient and economical method in fabricating micro/mesofeatures on the large-area surface of the metal parts. However, process design methods based on scale law cannot be directly used due to size effects. Its formability is greatly influenced by tool feature size and material grain size. In this study, a lab-scale R2P imprinting system was developed to fabricate the microsructures on the surface of metallic materials. The specimens of pure aluminum and pure copper with various size grains were prepared. Rigid die with geometric dimensions was fabricated and series of experiments were conducted. The microfeature height of the imprinted workpiece was measured to evaluate the effects of tool feature dimensions (width, spacing, and fillet) and metal grain sizes. It is found that the groove width and fillet had more significant effect on the microfeature formation among the die cavity geometric parameters. Wider groove could enhance the microforming ability and large fillet could improve the flowing ability. From the viewpoint of polycrystalline material, grain structures significantly affected the microfeature formation. When the grain size was smaller than the groove width, the material flowed more easily into the die cavity with increasing of the grain size because of the decrease of grain boundary strengthening effect.

Copyright © 2013 by ASME
Your Session has timed out. Please sign back in to continue.


Evans, C. J., and Bryan, J. B., 1999, “‘Structured’, ‘Textured’ or ‘Engineered’ Surfaces,” CIRP Ann. - Manuf. Technol., 48(2), pp. 541–556. [CrossRef]
Walsh, M. J., 1983, “Riblets as a Viscous Drag Reduction Technique,” AIAA J., 21(4), pp. 485–486. [CrossRef]
Bechert, D. W., Bruse, M., Hage, W., VanderHoeven, J. G. T., and Hoppe, G., 1997, “Experiments on Drag-Reducing Surfaces and Their Optimization With an Adjustable Geometry,” J. Fluid Mech., 338, pp. 59–87. [CrossRef]
Dean, B., and Bhushan, B., 2010, “Shark-Skin Surfaces for Fluid-Drag Reduction in Turbulent Flow: A Review,” Philos. Trans. R. Soc. A-Math. Phys. Eng. Sci., 368(1929), pp. 4775–4806. [CrossRef]
Meng, F. M., Zhou, R., Davis, T., Cao, J., Wang, Q. J., Hua, D., and Liu, J., 2010, “Study on Effect of Dimples on Friction of Parallel Surfaces Under Different Sliding Conditions,” Appl. Surf. Sci., 256(9), pp. 2863–2875. [CrossRef]
Zhou, R., Cao, J., Wang, Q. J., Meng, F. M., Zimowski, K., and Xia, Z. C., 2011, “Effect of EDT Surface Texturing on Tribological Behavior of Aluminum Sheet,” J. Mater. Process. Technol., 211(10), pp. 1643–1649. [CrossRef]
Yao, Z. H., Kim, G. Y., Faidley, L., Zou, Q. Z., Mei, D. Q., and Chen, Z. C., 2012, “Effects of Superimposed High-Frequency Vibration on Deformation of Aluminum in Micro/Meso-Scale Upsetting,” J. Mater. Process. Technol., 212(3), pp. 640–646. [CrossRef]
Yao, Z. H., Kim, G. Y., Faidley, L., Zou, Q. Z., Mei, D. Q., and Chen, Z. C., 2011, “Experimental Study of High-Frequency Vibration Assisted Micro/Mesoscale Forming of Metallic Materials,” ASME J. Manuf. Sci. Eng., 133(6), p. 061009. [CrossRef]
Samm, K., Terzi, M., Ostendorf, A., and Wulfsberg, J., 2009, “Laser-Assisted Micro-Forming Process With Miniaturised Structures in Sapphire Dies,” Appl. Surf. Sci., 255(24), pp. 9830–9834. [CrossRef]
Chou, S. Y., Keimel, C., and Gu, J., 2002, “Ultrafast and Direct Imprint of Nanostructures in Silicon,” Nature, 417(6891), pp. 835–837. [CrossRef]
Mai, J. M., Peng, L. F., Lai, X. M., and Lin, Z. Q., 2013, “Electrical-Assisted Embossing Process for Fabrication of Micro-Channels on 316L Stainless Steel Plate,” J. Mater. Process. Technol., 213(2), pp. 314–321. [CrossRef]
Tan, H., Gilbertson, A., and Chou, S. Y., 1998, “Roller Nanoimprint Lithography,” J. Vac. Sci. Technol. B, 16(6), pp. 3926–3928. [CrossRef]
Chang, C., Yang, S., and Sheh, J., 2006, “A Roller Embossing Process for Rapid Fabrication of Microlens Arrays on Glass Substrates,” Microsyst. Technol., 12(8), pp. 754–759. [CrossRef]
Chang, C. Y., Yang, S. Y., and Chu, M. H., 2007, “Rapid Fabrication of Ultraviolet-Cured Polymer Microlens Arrays by Soft Roller Stamping Process,” Microelectron. Eng., 84(2), pp. 355–361. [CrossRef]
Liu, S. J., and Chang, Y. C., 2007, “A Novel Soft-Mold Roller Embossing Method for the Rapid Fabrication of Micro-Blocks Onto Glass Substrates,” J. Micromech. Microeng., 17(8), pp. 172–179. [CrossRef]
Wu, J. T., and Yang, S. Y., 2010, “A Gasbag-Roller-Assisted UV Imprinting Technique for Fabrication of a Microlens Array on a PMMA Substrate,” J. Micromech. Microeng., 20, p. 085038. [CrossRef]
Makela, T., Haatainen, T., Majander, P., and Ahopelto, J., 2007, “Continuous Roll to Roll Nanoimprinting of Inherently Conducting Polyaniline,” Microelectron. Eng., 84(5–8), pp. 877–879. [CrossRef]
Makela, T., Haatainen, T., Majander, P., Ahopelto, J., and Lambertini, V., 2008, “Continuous Double-Sided Roll-to-Roll Imprinting of Polymer Film,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys., Part 1, 47(6), pp. 5142–5144. [CrossRef]
Sahli, M., Malek, C. K., and Gelin, J. C., 2009, “3D Modelling and Simulation of the Filling of Cavities by Viscoelastic Polymer in Roll Embossing Process,” Int. J. Mater. Form., 2, pp. 725–728. [CrossRef]
Ng, S. H., and Wang, Z. F., 2009, “Hot Roller Embossing for Microfluidics: Process and Challenges,” Microsyst. Technol., 15(8), pp. 1149–1156. [CrossRef]
Yeo, L. P., Ng, S. H., Wang, Z. F., Wang, Z. P., and de Rooij, N. F., 2009, “Micro-Fabrication of Polymeric Devices Using Hot Roller Embossing,” Microelectron. Eng., 86(4–6), pp. 933–936. [CrossRef]
Yeo, L. P., Ng, S. H., Wang, Z. F., Xia, H. M., Wang, Z. P., Thang, V. S., Zhong, Z. W., and de Rooij, N. F., 2010, “Investigation of Hot Roller Embossing for Microfluidic Devices,” J. Micromech. Microeng., 20(1), p. 015017. [CrossRef]
Song, J. H., Lee, H. J., Lan, S., Lee, N. K., Lee, G. A., Lee, T. J., Choi, S., and Bae, S. M., 2010, “Development of the Roll Type Incremental Micro Pattern Imprint System for Large Area Pattern Replication,” Precision Assembly Technologies and Systems, pp. 97–104.
Lan, S. H., Song, J. H., Lee, M. G., Ni, J., and Lee, H. J., 2010, “Continuous Roll-to-Flat Thermal Imprinting Process for Large-Area Micro-Pattern Replication on Polymer Substrate,” Microelectron. Eng., 87(12), pp. 2596–2601. [CrossRef]
Velten, T., Schuck, H., Haberer, W., and Bauerfeld, F., 2010, “Investigations on Reel-to-Reel Hot Embossing,” Int. J. Adv. Manuf. Technol., 47(1), pp. 73–80. [CrossRef]
Velten, T., Bauerfeld, F., Schuck, H., Scherbaum, S., Landesberger, C., and Bock, K., 2011, “Roll-to-Roll Hot Embossing of Microstructures,” Microsyst. Technol., 17(4), pp. 619–627. [CrossRef]
Zhou, R., Cao, J., Ehmann, K., and Xu, C., 2011, “An Investigation on Deformation-Based Surface Texturing,” J. Manuf. Sci. Eng., 133(6), p. 061017. [CrossRef]
Zhou, R., Cao, J., Ehmann, K., Chuang, Y., Lee, A. H. C., Wu, C. F., and Huang, K. M., 2011, “A Novel Desktop Deformation-Based Micro Surface Texturing System,” Proceedings of the 6th International Conference on MicroManufacturing, ICOMM, pp. 91–97.
Ng, M. K., Fan, R., Zhou, R., Smith, E.III, Gao, R. X., and Cao, J., 2012, “Micro Surface-Texturing by Electrically-Assisted Micro-Rolling,” Proceedings of the 7th International Conference on MicroManufacturing, ICOMM, pp. 259–266.
Kurnia, W., and Yoshino, M., 2009, “Nano/Micro Structure Fabrication of Metal Surfaces Using the Combination of Nano Plastic Forming, Coating and Roller Imprinting Processes,” J. Micromech. Microeng., 19(12), p. 125028. [CrossRef]
Yamamoto, M., and Kuwabara, T., 2008, “Micro Form Rolling: Imprinting Ability of Microgrooves on Metal Shafts,” J. Mater. Process. Technol., 201(1–3), pp. 232–236. [CrossRef]
Hirt, G., and Thome, M., 2007, “Large Area Rolling of Functional Metallic Micro Structures,” Prod. Eng., 1(4), pp. 351–356. [CrossRef]
Hirt, G., and Thome, M., 2008, “Rolling of Functional Metallic Surface Structures,” CIRP Ann.-Manuf. Technol., 57(1), pp. 317–320. [CrossRef]
Klocke, F., Feldhaus, B., and Mader, S., 2007, “Development of an Incremental Rolling Process for the Production of Defined Riblet Surface Structures,” Prod. Eng., 1(3), pp. 233–237. [CrossRef]
Engel, U., and Eckstein, R., 2002, “Microforming—From Basic Research to Its Realization,” J. Mater. Process. Technol., 125, pp. 35–44. [CrossRef]
Peng, L. F., Liu, D. A., Hu, P., Lai, X. M., and Ni, J., 2010, “Fabrication of Metallic Bipolar Plates for Proton Exchange Membrane Fuel Cell by Flexible Forming Process-Numerical Simulations and Experiments,” J. Fuel Cell Sci. Technol., 7(3), p. 031009. [CrossRef]
Li, H. Z., Dong, X. H., Shen, Y., Diehl, A., Hagenah, H., Engel, U., and Merklein, M., 2010, “Size Effect on Springback Behavior Due to Plastic Strain Gradient Hardening in Microbending Process of Pure Aluminum Foils,” Mater. Sci. Eng. A, 527(16–17), pp. 4497–4504. [CrossRef]
Geiger, M., Kleiner, M., Eckstein, R., Tiesler, N., and Engel, U., 2001, “Microforming,” CIRP Ann.-Manuf. Technol., 50(2), pp. 445–462. [CrossRef]
Raulea, L. V., Goijaerts, A. M., Govaert, L. E., and Baaijens, F. P. T., 2001, “Size Effects in the Processing of Thin Metal Sheets,” J. Mater. Process. Technol., 115(1), pp. 44–48. [CrossRef]
Deng, J. H., Fu, M. W., and Chan, W. L., 2011, “Size Effect on Material Surface Deformation Behavior in Micro-Forming Process,” Mater. Sci. Eng. A, 528(13–14), pp. 4799–4806. [CrossRef]
Wang, C. J., Shan, D. B., Zhou, J., Guo, B., and Sun, L. N., 2007, “Size Effects of the Cavity Dimension on the Microforming Ability During Coining Process,” J. Mater. Process. Technol., 187, pp. 256–259. [CrossRef]
Kim, G. Y., Koc, M., and Ni, J., 2008, “Experimental and Numerical Investigations on Microcoining of Stainless Steel 304,” ASME J. Manuf. Sci. Eng., 130(4), p. 041017. [CrossRef]
Chan, W. L., Fu, M. W., and Lu, J., 2011, “Experimental and Simulation Study of Deformation Behavior in Micro-Compound Extrusion Process,” Mater. Des., 32(2), pp. 525–534. [CrossRef]
Van Putten, K., and Hirt, G., 2010, “Size Effects on Miniaturised Rolling Processes,” Ironmaking Steelmaking, 37(4), pp. 283–289. [CrossRef]
Van Putten, K., Kopp, R., and Hirt, G., 2007, “Influences of Size Effects on the Rolling of Micro Strip,” AIP Conf. Proc., 907, pp. 629–634. [CrossRef]


Grahic Jump Location
Fig. 3

Dimension and photograph of tensile specimen: (a) sketch of the specimen (units in mm) and (b) photograph of the specimen

Grahic Jump Location
Fig. 2

Grain structure of pure copper along the thickness direction of sheet after annealing: (a) 700 °C, d = 35 μm, (b) 800 °C, d = 130 μm, and (c) 900 °C, d = 220 μm

Grahic Jump Location
Fig. 1

Grain structure of pure aluminum along the thickness direction of sheet after annealing: (a) 400 °C, d = 50 μm and (b) 600 °C, d = 90 μm

Grahic Jump Location
Fig. 4

Self-developed micro/meso R2P imprinting process system: (a) schematic of micro/meso R2P imprinting process and (b) micro/meso R2P imprinting system and flat die

Grahic Jump Location
Fig. 5

2D and 3D scanned image of surface feature 2 on the flat die. (W = 0.4 mm, S = 1 mm, R = 0.2 mm)

Grahic Jump Location
Fig. 12

Grain deformation of pure aluminum specimen, d = 50 μm: (a) F1, RD = 0.25 mm, (b) F1, RD = 0.55 mm; d = 90 μm: (c) F1, RD = 0.25 mm, and (d) F1, RD = 0.55 mm

Grahic Jump Location
Fig. 13

Grain deformation of pure copper specimen, d = 35 μm: (a) F1, RD = 0.25 mm, (b) F1, RD = 0.55 mm; d = 220 μm: (c) F1, RD = 0.25 mm, and (d) F1, RD = 0.55 mm

Grahic Jump Location
Fig. 6

Experimental results: (a) photograph of imprinted 1.5 mm-thick pure copper sheet (d = 35 μm) and (b) scanned 2D–3D image of imprinted pure copper specimens (d = 35 μm, RD = 0.55 mm)

Grahic Jump Location
Fig. 7

Response of the rolling force with the rolling depth. (pure aluminum: d = 50 μm, pure copper: d = 35 μm)

Grahic Jump Location
Fig. 9

Effect of fillet: (a) W = 0.4 mm, (b) W = 0.6 mm, and (c) W = 0.8 mm

Grahic Jump Location
Fig. 10

Effect of grain sizes in feature formation (pure aluminum)

Grahic Jump Location
Fig. 11

Effect of grain sizes in feature formation (pure copper)

Grahic Jump Location
Fig. 8

Effect of groove width: (a) S = 0.8 mm, R = 0.1 mm and (b) S = 1.2 mm, R = 0.3 mm



Some tools below are only available to our subscribers or users with an online account.

Related Content

Customize your page view by dragging and repositioning the boxes below.

Related Journal Articles
Related eBook Content
Topic Collections

Sorry! You do not have access to this content. For assistance or to subscribe, please contact us:

  • TELEPHONE: 1-800-843-2763 (Toll-free in the USA)
  • EMAIL: asmedigitalcollection@asme.org
Sign In