Research Papers

Parametric Investigation Into the Fabrication of Disk Microelectrodes by Electrochemical Micromachining

[+] Author and Article Information
Vijaysing Rathod

e-mail: vurathodju@rediffmail.com

B. Doloi

e-mail: bdoloionline@rediffmail.com

B. Bhattacharyya

e-mail: bb13@rediffmail.comProduction Engineering Department,
Jadavpur University,
Raja S.C. Mullick Road, Jadavpur,
Kolkata, West Bengal 700 032, India

1Corresponding author.

Contributed by the Manufacturing Engineering Division of ASME for publication in the JOURNAL OF MICRO- AND NANO-MANUFACTURING. Manuscript received March 15, 2013; final manuscript received November 1, 2013; published online November 28, 2013. Assoc. Editor: Hitoshi Ohmori.

J. Micro Nano-Manuf 1(4), 041005 (Nov 28, 2013) (11 pages) Paper No: JMNM-13-1016; doi: 10.1115/1.4025977 History: Received March 15, 2013; Revised November 01, 2013

In electrochemical micromachining (EMM) of microfeatures using straight cylindrical microtools, sidewalls of the structure tapers as depth increases. Disk microtool electrodes are used to minimize the taper formation during the machining of microfeatures. At present disk microtool electrodes are fabricated by wire electrical discharge grinding, reverse electro discharge machining (EDM), and microwire electro discharge machining method, which needs separate EDM machine as well as fabricated microtools suffer from thermal defects like microcracks on surface, residual stress, deformation, and needs careful handling. To overcome these limitations, new method is proposed to fabricate disk microtool electrode by EMM. Also the influences of EMM process parameters like applied voltage, pulse frequency, duty ratio, electrolyte concentration on shank diameter, material removal rate, and surface quality are investigated. Disk microtool electrode of disk height 70 μm, disk diameter 175 μm, shank diameter 93 μm, and shank height 815 μm have been fabricated from tungsten microrod of 300 μm diameter by proposed method and used to machine microfeatures like cylindrical hole with reduced taper angle, reverse taper hole, taper free microgroove, and 3D microstructure with plane surfaces on stainless steel by EMM. Effects of disk height on machining accuracy during generation of microhole, in the form of taper angle are also presented in the paper. Proposed method of developing disk electrode by EMM will be very useful for fabricating disk microtool electrodes with different disk diameters, disk heights, shank diameter, and shank height with desired surface quality by controlling various process parameters. Disk microtools with lower disk heights are more effective to generate microfeatures with minimum taper.

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Fig. 1

Constructional details of disk microtool electrode

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Fig. 2

Schematics for fabricating principle of disk microtool electrode

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Fig. 3

Variation of shank diameter and MRR with applied voltage

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Fig. 4

Surface quality at shank surfaces machined at various voltages

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Fig. 5

Variation of shank diameter and MRR with applied frequency

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Fig. 6

Shank diameter and its surface quality at applied frequency of (a) 1 MHz, (b) 1.5 MHz, (c) 2 MHz, and (d) 2.5 MHz

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Fig. 7

Variation of shank diameter and MRR with electrolyte concentration

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Fig. 8

Shank diameters and surface quality at electrolyte concentration of (a) 1 M, (b) 1.5 M, (c) 2 M, and (d) 2.5 M

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Fig. 9

Variation of shank diameter and MRR with duty ratio

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Fig. 10

Shank diameter and surface quality at duty ratio of (a) 40%, (b) 60%, (c) 80%, and (d) 100%

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Fig. 11

Variation of shank diameter and MRR with machining time

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Fig. 12

Shape and size of shank dia. at different time intervals (a) at beginning, (b) after 7 min (front end insulated) (c) after 11 min (front end insulated), and (d) after 15 min (insulation removed)

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Fig. 13

Surface qualities at shank dia. (a) at beginning and after, (b) 5 min, (c) 7 min, (d) 11 min, (e) 13 min, and (f) 15 min.

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Fig. 14

Disk microtool electrodes with different disk heights

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Fig. 15

Variation of disk height of microtool with insulation length

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Fig. 16

Microhole diameter and taper angle according to disk height of tool

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Fig. 17

Fabricated disk microtool electrode by EMM

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Fig. 18

Effect of electrode shape on wall profile (a) straight cylindrical microtool electrode and (b) disk microtool electrode

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Fig. 19

Microhole machined by (a) straight cylindrical microtool and (b) disk microtool electrode

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Fig. 20

Microhole diameter and taper angle according to type of microtool

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Fig. 21

Reverse taper microhole machined by disk microtool electrode (a) entry side and (b) exit side

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Fig. 22

Microgrooves machined by (a) straight cylindrical electrode and (b) disk microtool electrode

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Fig. 23

3D structure with plane surfaces



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