Research Papers

Characterization of Delamination in Laser Microtransfer Printing

[+] Author and Article Information
Ala'a M. Al-okaily

Department of Mechanical
Science and Engineering,
University of Illinois at Urbana–Champaign,
Urbana, IL 61801
e-mail: alokail2@illinois.edu

John A. Rogers

Frederick Seitz Materials Research Laboratory,
Department of Materials Science and Engineering and Department of Mechanical
Science and Engineering,
University of Illinois at Urbana–Champaign, Urbana, IL 61801
e-mail: jrogers@illinois.edu

Placid M. Ferreira

Fellow ASME
Department of Mechanical
Science and Engineering,
University of Illinois at Urbana–Champaign,
Urbana, IL 61801
e-mail: pferreir@illinois.edu

1Corresponding author.

Contributed by the Manufacturing Engineering Division of ASME for publication in the JOURNAL OF MICRO- AND NANO-MANUFACTURING. Manuscript received August 20, 2013; final manuscript received December 6, 2013; published online January 17, 2014. Assoc. Editor: John P. Coulter.

J. Micro Nano-Manuf 2(1), 011002 (Jan 17, 2014) (11 pages) Paper No: JMNM-13-1065; doi: 10.1115/1.4026238 History: Received August 20, 2013; Revised December 06, 2013

Microtransfer printing is rapidly emerging as an effective method for heterogeneous materials integration. Laser microtransfer printing (LMTP) is a noncontact variant of the process that uses laser heating to drive the release of the microstructure from the stamp. This makes the process independent of the properties or preparation of the receiving substrate. In this paper, an extensive study is conducted to investigate the capability of the LMTP process. Furthermore, a thermomechanical finite element model (FEM) is developed, using the experimentally observed delamination times and absorbed powers, to estimate the delamination temperatures at the interface, as well as the strain, displacement, and thermal gradient fields.

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Ishikawa, F., Hsiao-Kang, C., Ryu, K., Chen, P., Badmaev, A., Arco, L., Shen, G., and Zhou, C., 2009, “Transparent Electronics Based on Transfer Printed Aligned Carbon Nanotubes on Rigid and Flexible Substrates,” ACS Nano, 3(1), pp. 73–79. [CrossRef] [PubMed]
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Yoon, J., Baca, A., Sang-Il, P., Elvikis, P., Geddes, J., Li, L., Kim, R., Xiao, J., Wang, S., Kim, T., Motala, M., Ahn, B., Duoss, E., Lewis, L., Nuzzo, N., Ferreira, P., Huang, Y., Rockett, A., and Rogers, J., 2008, “Ultrathin Silicon Solar Microcells for Semitransparent, Mechanically Flexible and Microconcentrator Module Designs,” Nat. Mater., 7(11), pp. 907–915. [CrossRef] [PubMed]
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Meitl, M., Zhu, Z., Kumar, V., Lee, K., Feng, X., Huang, Y., Adesida, I., Nuzzo, R., and Rogers, J., 2006, “Transfer Printing by Kinetic Control of Adhesion to an Elastomeric Stamp,” Nat. Mater., 5(1), pp. 33–38. [CrossRef]
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Caminoa, G., Lomakinb, S., and Lazzaria, M., 2001, “Polydimethylsiloxane Thermal Degradation Part 1. Kinetic Aspects,” Polymer, 42(6), pp. 2395–2402. [CrossRef]


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Fig. 1

Examples of devices printed using transfer printing. (a) Transparent carbon nanotube based transistors [1]. (b) GaN transistors on plastic substrate [2]. (c) LED on stretchable substrate [3]. (d) OLED display with printed electronics [4]. (e) Ultrathin silicon solar microcells [5]. (f) A hemispherical electronic eye camera [6]. (Composite figure taken from Ref. [9]).

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Fig. 2

A typical laser microtransfer printing cycle

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Fig. 3

Examples of printing on different surfaces: (left-top) printing on a single 1 mm ceramic sphere, (middle-top) printing on a nonuniform array of 500 μm silica beads, (right-top) printing on to a liquid NOA droplet, (left-bottom) a silicon square printed on to a AFM cantilever, demonstrating assembly on an active structure, (middle-bottom) printing on a ledge, and (right-bottom) printing into recessed spaces. (Composite figure taken from Ref. [9]).

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Fig. 4

A second-generation laser microtransfer printer

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Fig. 5

Schematic of the laser microtransfer printer's print head

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Fig. 6

Measured laser beam power at the print zone as a function of the laser diode current

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Fig. 7

Schematic of experimental set-up used to characterize the laser beam in the print zone

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Fig. 8

Laser beam profile at different imaging planes (images were captured using a 4 A laser beam current level reflected from a gold substrate)

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Fig. 9

Fishbone diagram of factors affecting the LMTP process

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Fig. 10

Experimental set-up for measuring the laser beam power absorbed by the silicon ink

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Fig. 11

Example signals recorded by the power meter

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Fig. 12

Power absorbed by silicon inks: (a) power absorbed by silicon ink, (b) normalized power absorbed by silicon thickness, (c) normalized power absorbed by ink area, and (d) normalized power absorbed by ink volume

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Fig. 13

Schematic of hardware configuration for measuring for delamination time

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Fig. 14

Example of frames from a high speed camera recording of the delamination process used to measure delamination time (here 4.75 ms), images postprocessed to improve contrast

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Fig. 15

Statistical analysis of process parameters affecting delamination time: (a) ANOVA table for main effect of process parameters and trial number and (b) ANOVA table for main effect and two way interactions of process parameters

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Fig. 16

Delamination time experimentally observed using the high speed camera: (a) 20 A laser beam current level, (b) 15 A laser beam current level, and (c) 10 A laser beam current level

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Fig. 17

Energy required to start delamination at 10 A current level: (a) energy input required to start delamination, (b) energy input required to start delamination normalized by ink thickness, (c) energy input required to start delamination normalized by ink area, and (d) energy input required to start delamination normalized by the ink volume

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Fig. 18

Axisymmetric coupled thermomechanical FEA model results for 100 × 100 × 3 μm ink set: (a) temperature field, (b) detailed view a temperature field around the interface, (c) deformed body showing the max axial displacement, (d) temperature gradient around the crack tip, (e) axial strain field component, and (f) radial strain field component

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Fig. 19

Model prediction for Si-PDMS interface temperature at the experimentally observed time of delamination for different ink sizes and thicknesses for both measured and predicted heating rates at 10 A current levels

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Fig. 20

Model prediction for maximum axial displacement at the experimentally observed time of delamination for different ink sizes and thicknesses for both measured and predicted heating rates at 10 A current levels



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