Research Papers

System Design and Process Optimization for the Inkjet Printing of PEDOT:Poly(styrenesulfonate)

[+] Author and Article Information
P. Wilson

Department of Mechanical Engineering Sciences,
Faculty of Engineering and Physical Sciences,
University of Surrey,
Guildford, Surrey GU2 7XH, UK
e-mail: peter.wilson@surrey.ac.uk

C. Lekakou

Department of Mechanical Engineering Sciences,
Faculty of Engineering and Physical Sciences,
University of Surrey,
Guildford, Surrey GU2 7XH, UK
e-mail: C.Lekakou@surrey.ac.uk

J. F. Watts

Department of Mechanical Engineering Sciences,
Faculty of Engineering and Physical Sciences,
University of Surrey,
Guildford, Surrey GU2 7XH, UK
e-mail: j.watts@surrey.ac.uk

1Corresponding author.

Contributed by the Manufacturing Engineering Division of ASME for publication in the JOURNAL OF Micro- AND Nano-Manufacturing. Manuscript received May 30, 2013; final manuscript received December 11, 2013; published online January 27, 2014. Assoc. Editor: John P. Coulter.

J. Micro Nano-Manuf 2(1), 011004 (Jan 27, 2014) (9 pages) Paper No: JMNM-13-1035; doi: 10.1115/1.4026272 History: Received May 30, 2013; Revised December 11, 2013

A laboratory-scale inkjet printing system was designed for printing polymeric inks with the focus on PEDOT:PSS, a transparent, electrically conductive polymer. PEDOT:PSS inks with 0 and 1 wt. % Surfynol were tested rheologically in elongational and shear flows. A process model is presented and validated for the prediction of flow boundary after the ink exits the nozzle, including drop formation. Process optimization involved establishing a process window related to the voltage waveform, substrate temperature, speed and printed line-overlap, aiming at avoiding satellite drops, “coffee cup” rings, the Rayleigh instability, “stacked printed lines,” and discontinuities in the printed lines or films.

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Fig. 1

Diagram of the inkjet printing system

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Fig. 2

Rheological data of (a) viscosity μ as a function of shear rate dγ/dt and (b) elongational viscosity μelong as a function of strain rate dε/dt for the PEDOT:PSS ink without and with 1 wt. % Surfynol

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Fig. 3

Drop velocity at 500 μs from the nozzle as a function of drive architecture dwell time for PEDOT:PSS (0% Surfynol). In the case of satellite drop formation, the velocity of the fastest drop has been recorded

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Fig. 4

Image observation of drop flight and generation from a 25 V double waveform of different dwell times in the range of 14–28 μs.

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Fig. 5

Drop velocity at 500 μs from the nozzle as a function of the inputted voltage waveform shape and dwell time for PEDOT:PSS water ink with 1% Surfynol. In the case of satellite drop formation, the velocity of the fastest drop has been recorded

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Fig. 6

Snapshots of downwards inkjet flow and drop formation at 500 μs after the ink exits the nozzle for the 30 V single waveform of different pulse times for the two types of PEDOT:PSS ink: (a) with 0% Surfynol and (b) with 1 wt. % Surfynol. Solid line: R versus z predictions; filled gray ellipses: experimental drop images

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Fig. 7

3D plot and 2D profile of inkjet printed PEDOT:PSS at Tsub = 30 and 40 °C, respectively

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Fig. 8

3D plot, “widest-point” 2D profile and top view of inkjet printed PEDOT:PSS drop-line for different values of DCD

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Fig. 9

3D plot, 2D profile and top view of two inkjet printed PEDOT:PSS lines for different values of LCD

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Fig. 10

Profile outlines of two inkjet printed lines at different values of LCD in the range of 105–153 μm




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