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Research Papers

Surface Micropatterning of Pure Titanium for Biomedical Applications Via High Energy Pulse Laser Peening

[+] Author and Article Information
Ninggang Shen, Chelsey N. Pence, Ibrahim T. Ozbolat

Department of Mechanical
and Industrial Engineering,
University of Iowa,
Iowa City, IA 52242

Hongtao Ding

Department of Mechanical
and Industrial Engineering,
University of Iowa,
Iowa City, IA 52242
e-mail: hongtao-ding@uiowa.edu

Robert Bowers, Clark M. Stanford

Dows Institute for Dental Research,
College of Dentistry,
University of Iowa,
Iowa City, IA 52242

Yin Yu

Department of Biomedical Engineering,
University of Iowa,
Iowa City, IA 52242

1Corresponding author.

Contributed by the Manufacturing Engineering Division of ASME for publication in the JOURNAL OF MICRO- AND NANO-MANUFACTURING. Manuscript received June 26, 2014; final manuscript received November 20, 2014; published online December 15, 2014. Assoc. Editor: Nicholas Fang.

J. Micro Nano-Manuf 3(1), 011005 (Mar 01, 2015) (8 pages) Paper No: JMNM-14-1040; doi: 10.1115/1.4029247 History: Received June 26, 2014; Revised November 20, 2014; Online December 15, 2014

Pure titanium is an ideal material for biomedical implant applications for its superior biocompatibility, but it lacks of the mechanical strength required in these applications compared with titanium alloys. This research is concerned with an innovative laser peening-based material process to improve the mechanical strength and cell attachment property of pure titanium in biomedical applications. Evidence has shown that engineered surface with unsmooth topologies will contribute to the osteoblast differentiation in human mesenchymal pre-osteoblastic cells, which is helpful to avoid long-term peri-abutment inflammation issues for the dental implant therapy with transcutaneous devices. However, surface quality is difficult to control or mechanical strength is not enhanced using conventional approaches. In this paper, a novel high energy pulse laser peening (HEPLP) process is proposed to both improve the mechanical strength and introduce a micropattern into the biomedical implant material of a commercially pure Titanium (cpTi). The strong shock wave generated by HEPLP presses a stainless steel grid, used as a stamp, on cpTi foils to imprint a micropattern. To understand the basic science during the process, the HEPLP induced shock wave pressure profile and history are modeled by a multiphysics hydrodynamic numerical analysis. The micropatterns and strength enhancement are then simulated using a dislocation density-based finite element (FE) framework. Finally, cell culture tests are conducted to investigate the biomedical performance of the patterned surface.

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Figures

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Fig. 1

HEPLP micropatterning experimental setup. (a) Lasers and optics and (b) sandwich structured target material.

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Fig. 2

SEM image of the patterned cpTi surface

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Fig. 3

Scanned 3D maps and extracted 2D profile of untreated and treated cpTi surface. (a) 3D map of untreated surface, (b) 3D map of pattered surface, and (c) 2D profile across three plateaus on the pattered surface.

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Fig. 4

Microhardness tests for untreated and peened copper surface

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Fig. 5

Pressure history near the coating/confinement layer interface

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Fig. 6

Simulated shock wave pressure distribution at 4 ns

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Fig. 7

Dislocation density-based FE simulation results: (a) mesh grid model, (b) deformation (z-displacement, mm), (c) equivalent plastic strain, (d) dislocation density, ρtot (mm−2), (e) grain size, D (mm), (f) microhardness, and h (HV)

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Fig. 8

cpTi foil fixed on a copper cylinder fixture seeded with chondrocytes in cell culture chamber and the cell incubation

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Fig. 9

Comparison of SEM images of the patterned area and untreated flat surface on cpTi foil after cell culture test. (a) Patterned area and (b) original flat surface.

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Fig. 10

Different cell growing modes in the patterned area and untreated area. In (a), the outgrown (ellipse), outgrowing cells (rectangle) in the channel, and cells sitting on the wall of the channel (octagon) are highlighted. (a) Zoomed-in view in the channel, (b) an outgrowing cell in the channel, and (c) a no-outgrowth cell attached on the flat surface.

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