0
Research Papers

Electrospray Ionization of Polymers: Evaporation, Drop Fission, and Deposited Particle Morphology1

[+] Author and Article Information
Marriner H. Merrill

Mem. ASME
Naval Research Laboratory,
4555 Overlook Avenue, SW,
Washington, DC 20375
e-mail: marriner.merrill@nrl.navy.mil

William R. Pogue, III

Naval Research Laboratory,
4555 Overlook Avenue, SW,
Washington, DC 20375
e-mail: willie.pogue@nrl.navy.mil

Jared N. Baucom

Mem. ASME
Naval Research Laboratory,
4555 Overlook Avenue, SW,
Washington, DC 20735

1Paper presented at the 2014 ASME International Mechanical Engineering Congress and Exposition (IMECE), Montreal, Canada, November 14–20, 2014, Paper No. IMECE2014-37119.

2Former employee.

Contributed by the Manufacturing Engineering Division of ASME for publication in the JOURNAL OF MICRO- AND NANO-MANUFACTURING. Manuscript received August 20, 2014; final manuscript received September 4, 2014; published online December 3, 2014. Editor: Jian Cao. This material is declared a work of the U.S. Government and is not subject to copyright protection in the United States. Approved for public release; distribution is unlimited.

J. Micro Nano-Manuf 3(1), 011003 (Mar 01, 2015) (7 pages) Paper No: JMNM-14-1059; doi: 10.1115/1.4028505 History: Received August 20, 2014; Revised September 04, 2014; Online December 03, 2014

The fundamental challenge of nanomanufacturing is to create, control, and place immense quantities of nanoscale objects controllably over large surface areas. Electrospray ionization (ESI) has the potential to address this challenge due to its simplicity, applicability to a broad range of materials, and intrinsic scalability. However, the interactions between electrospray parameters and final deposited morphology are not well understood. Experimental results are combined with physics-based models to explain how observed particle size distributions are caused in the spray by evaporation and Coulomb fission of drops with solute concentration gradients.

FIGURES IN THIS ARTICLE
<>
Copyright © 2015 by ASME
Your Session has timed out. Please sign back in to continue.

References

USDA, 2002, “Forest Inventory and Analysis National Program: Major-Trends,” U.S. Department of Agriculture, http://www.fia.fs.fed.us/slides/major-trends.pdf
Fenn, J. B., 2003, “Electrospray Wings for Molecular Elephants (Nobel Lecture),” Angew. Chem.– Int. Ed., 42(33), pp. 3871–3894. [CrossRef]
Deng, W., Waits, C. M., Morgan, B., and Gomez, A., 2009, “Compact Multiplexing of Monodisperse Electrosprays,” J. Aerosol Sci., 40(10), pp. 907–918. [CrossRef]
Edward Law, S., 2001, “Agricultural Electrostatic Spray Application: A Review of Significant Research and Development During the 20th Century,” J. Electrostat., 51–52(1–4), pp. 25–42. [CrossRef]
Rietveld, I. B., Kobayashi, K., Yamada, H., and Matsushige, K., 2006, “Electrospray Deposition, Model, and Experiment: Toward General Control of Film Morphology,” J. Phys. Chem. B, 110(46), pp. 23351–23364. [CrossRef] [PubMed]
Wilhelm, O., Pratsinis, S. E., Perednis, D., and Gauckler, L. J., 2005, “Electrospray and Pressurized Spray Deposition of Yttria-Stabilized Zirconia Films,” Thin Solid Films, 479(1–2), pp. 121–129. [CrossRef]
Ganán-Calvo, A. M., 2004, “On the General Scaling Theory for Electrospraying,” J. Fluid Mech., 507, pp. 203–212. [CrossRef]
Persano, L., Camposeo, A., Tekmen, C., and Pisignano, D., 2013, “Industrial Upscaling of Electrospinning and Applications of Polymer Nanofibers: A Review,” Macromol. Mater. Eng., 298(5), pp. 504–520. [CrossRef]
Carter, W., Popell, G. C., Samuel, J., and Mishra, S., 2014, “A Fundamental Study and Modeling of the Micro-Droplet Formation Process in Near-Field Electrohydrodynamic Jet Printing,” ASME J. Micro Nano-Manuf., 2(2), p. 021005. [CrossRef]
Lenggoro, I. W., Lee, H. M., and Okuyama, K., 2006, “Nanoparticle Assembly on Patterned “Plus/Minus” Surfaces From Electrospray of Colloidal Dispersion,” J. Colloid Interface Sci., 303(1), pp. 124–130. [CrossRef] [PubMed]
Varga, A., Brunelli, N. A., Louie, M. W., Giapis, K. P., and Haile, S. M., 2010, “Composite Nanostructured Solid-Acid Fuel-Cell Electrodes Via Electrospray Deposition,” J. Mater. Chem., 20(30), pp. 6309–6315. [CrossRef]
Almería, B., and Gomez, A., 2014, “Electrospray Synthesis of Monodisperse Polymer Particles in a Broad (60 nm–2 μm) Diameter Range: Guiding Principles and Formulation Recipes,” J. Colloid Interface Sci., 417, pp. 121–130. [CrossRef] [PubMed]
Park, J. Y., Oh, K. O., Won, J. C., Han, H., Jung, H. M., and Kim, Y. S., 2012, “Facile Fabrication of Superhydrophobic Coatings With Polyimide Particles Using a Reactive Electrospraying Process,” J. Mater. Chem., 22(31), pp. 16005–16010. [CrossRef]
Kebarle, P., and Verkcerk, U. H., 2009, “Electrospray: From Ions in Solution to Ions in the Gas Phase, What We Know Now,” Mass Spectrom. Rev., 28(6), pp. 898–917. [CrossRef] [PubMed]
Cech, N. B., and Enke, C. G., 2010, “Selectivity in Electrospray Ionization Mass Spectrometry,” Electrospray and Maldi Mass Spectrometry, Wiley, Hoboken, NJ, pp. 49–73.
Nemes, P., Marginean, I., and Vertes, A., 2007, “Spraying Mode Effect on Droplet Formation and Ion Chemistry in Electrosprays,” Anal. Chem., 79(8), pp. 3105–3116. [CrossRef] [PubMed]
Fernández de la Mora, J., 2007, “The Fluid Dynamics of Taylor Cones,” Annu. Rev. Fluid Mech., 39(1), pp. 217–243. [CrossRef]
Merrill, M. H., 2010, “Large-Scale Electrospray Ionization Methods for Nanocoating Application,” ASME International Mechanical Engineering Congress and Exposition (IMECE), ASME Paper No. IMECE2010-38799 pp. 177–186. [CrossRef]
Schindelin, J., Arganda-Carreras, I., Frise, E., Kaynig, V., Longair, M., Pietzsch, T., Preibisch, S., Rueden, C., Saalfeld, S., Schmid, B., Tinevez, J. Y., White, D. J., Hartenstein, V., Eliceiri, K., Tomancak, P., and Cardona, A., 2012, “Fiji: An Open-Source Platform for Biological-Image Analysis,” Nat. Methods, 9(7), pp. 676–682. [CrossRef] [PubMed]
Peschke, M., Verkerk, U. H., and Kebarle, P., 2004, “Features of the Esi Mechanism That Affect the Observation of Multiply Charged Noncovalent Protein Complexes and the Determination of the Association Constant by the Titration Method,” J. Am. Soc. Mass Spectrom., 15(10), pp. 1424–1434. [CrossRef] [PubMed]
Deng, W., and Gomez, A., 2007, “Influence of Space Charge on the Scale-up of Multiplexed Electrosprays,” J. Aerosol Sci., 38(10), pp. 1062–1078. [CrossRef]

Figures

Grahic Jump Location
Fig. 1

Electrosprayed particles imaged at 5000 × for the five cases run. Scale bar is 1 μm. Numbers correspond to Table 1.

Grahic Jump Location
Fig. 2

Size distribution for particles at 5 cm nozzle-substrate separation for 0.5% and 0.1% solutions

Grahic Jump Location
Fig. 3

Electrosprayed particle distributions for 0.1% (left) and 0.5% (right) solutions. The image is at a magnification of 20,000 × (1 μm scale bar) with an inset at 100,000 × (100 nm scale bar).

Grahic Jump Location
Fig. 4

Electrosprayed particles showing faint traces indicative of small secondary particles with diameters on the order of a few nanometers (0.5% solution, 1 cm nozzle-substrate distance, and scale bar is 100 nm)

Grahic Jump Location
Fig. 5

Montage of the different particle morphologies observed. Top shows round particles, middle shows various rod-shaped particles, and bottom shows comet-shaped particles (one- and two-sided). Scale bar is 1 μm.

Grahic Jump Location
Fig. 6

Eye region for 0.5% solution sprayed at 1 cm nozzle-substrate distance. Image is at 5000 × with inset at 20,000 ×. Both scale bars are 1 μm.

Grahic Jump Location
Fig. 7

The deposited spray regions observed for 3 cm nozzle-substrate spacing, from left to right, the image is taken at the spray center, 15 mm, 20 mm from center. Images all at 5000 ×, with scale bar of 1 μm (0.5% solution).

Grahic Jump Location
Fig. 8

The Taylor cone and initial jet for 0.1% PAA (left) and 0.5% PAA (right) solutions at 3 cm nozzle-substrate distance. Scale bar is 0.1 mm.

Grahic Jump Location
Fig. 9

Schematic of particle morphology caused by the balance of surface charge with concentration (viscosity)

Tables

Errata

Discussions

Some tools below are only available to our subscribers or users with an online account.

Related Content

Customize your page view by dragging and repositioning the boxes below.

Related Journal Articles
Related eBook Content
Topic Collections

Sorry! You do not have access to this content. For assistance or to subscribe, please contact us:

  • TELEPHONE: 1-800-843-2763 (Toll-free in the USA)
  • EMAIL: asmedigitalcollection@asme.org
Sign In