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Research Papers

Optothermal Modeling of Plasmonic Nanofocusing Structures With Nonlocal Optical Response and Ballistic Heat Transport

[+] Author and Article Information
Chen Chen

School of Mechanical Engineering,
Purdue University,
West Lafayette, IN 47907
e-mail: chen1364@purdue.edu

Zhidong Du

School of Mechanical Engineering,
Purdue University,
West Lafayette, IN 47907
e-mail: du61@purdue.edu

Liang Pan

Mem. ASME
School of Mechanical Engineering,
Purdue University,
West Lafayette, IN 47907
e-mail: liangpan@purdue.edu

1Corresponding author.

Contributed by the Manufacturing Engineering Division of ASME for publication in the JOURNAL OF MICRO- AND NANO-MANUFACTURING. Manuscript received August 8, 2014; final manuscript received December 2, 2014; published online January 15, 2015. Editor: Jian Cao.

J. Micro Nano-Manuf 3(1), 011009 (Mar 01, 2015) (7 pages) Paper No: JMNM-14-1051; doi: 10.1115/1.4029315 History: Received August 08, 2014; Revised December 02, 2014; Online January 15, 2015

Nanoscale optical energy focusing using plasmonic structures is crucial for many applications, such as imaging and lithography. Thermal management for these nanostructures is of great importance to maintain their reliabilities but has not been investigated extensively yet, especially when the strong nonlocalities present in the nanostructures. Here, we report a multiphysics model to study the coupled optical and thermal responses of plasmonic nanofocusing structures. We applied the hydrodynamic Drude model to describe the nonlocality in the optical response and derived ballistic–diffusive equations for both electrons and phonons to model the nonlocal thermal transport. Strong nonlocal optothermal responses were observed.

FIGURES IN THIS ARTICLE
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Copyright © 2015 by ASME
Topics: Heat , Electrons , Phonons , Heating , Joules
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Figures

Grahic Jump Location
Fig. 1

Schematic of energy conversion and transport in a metal wedge with an angle α. Photons with certain frequency excite SPPs, which propagate along the interface with a characteristic decay length. The associated Joule heating first initiates the electron thermal transport via a series of scattering events, which includes the generation of hot electrons and the excitation of ballistic and diffusive electrons. Meanwhile, phonons can also react to the thermal perturbation of electron system through electron–phonon coupling and start to experience similar ballistic–diffusive transport.

Grahic Jump Location
Fig. 2

Comparison of optical responses of the wedge tip based on the local Drude model and the nonlocal hydrodynamic model. (a) Calculated y component Ey of the electric field map within first 60 nm of the tip (tip angle α=6 deg) from its apex based on the Drude model. The lower half shows the square value of the absolute electric field |E|2 along cutline AA' labeled in the upper half of panel (a), 57 nm away from the apex, within the local approximation. (b) Map of Joule heating Re(J˜d·E˜*)/2 within the structure at the distance range of 60–10 nm away from the apex. The lower half shows Joule heating Re(J˜d·E˜*)/2 profile along cutline AA' labeled in the upper half of panel (b), 57 nm away from the apex, within Drude approximation. (c) Same information as in panel (a) but based on the nonlocal hydrodynamic model. (d) Same information as in panel (b) but based on the nonlocal hydrodynamic approximation.

Grahic Jump Location
Fig. 3

Thermal transport results from our trihierarchical nonlocal thermal transport model. (a) Spatial distribution of the normalized energy at t = 65 fs with respect to the normalized coordinates. The inset in panel (a) highlights that the peaks of the normalized energy of hot electrons shift away from the edges of the coordinates, which have the maximum generation rate shown in Fig. 2(d). (b) Temporal response of heat carriers through laser irradiation process. The upper inset shows the spatial distribution of electron system after laser irradiation (t = 200 fs) with respect to the normalized coordinates; the lower one shows the normalized energy of phonon system. (c) Change of the normalized energy during thermalization process between electrons and phonons.

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