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Research Papers

Theoretical and Experimental Study of Metallic Dot Agglomeration Induced by Thermal Dewetting

[+] Author and Article Information
Masahiko Yoshino

Department of Mechanical
and Control Engineering,
Tokyo Institute of Technology,
2-12-1 O-okayama,
Meguroku, Tokyo 152-8552, Japan
e-mail: myoshino@mes.titech.ac.jp

Zhenxing Li

Department of Mechanical
and Control Engineering,
Tokyo Institute of Technology,
2-12-1 O-okayama,
Meguroku, Tokyo 152-8552, Japan
e-mail: li.z.ae@m.titech.ac.jp

Motoki Terano

Department of Mechanical
and Control Engineering,
Tokyo Institute of Technology,
2-12-1 O-okayama,
Meguroku, Tokyo 152-8552, Japan
e-mail: terano.m.aa@m.titech.ac.jp

1Corresponding author.

Contributed by the Manufacturing Engineering Division of ASME for publication in the JOURNAL OF MICRO- AND NANO-MANUFACTURING. Manuscript received August 14, 2014; final manuscript received January 27, 2015; published online February 23, 2015. Assoc. Editor: Gracious Ngaile.

J. Micro Nano-Manuf 3(2), 021004 (Jun 01, 2015) (9 pages) Paper No: JMNM-14-1055; doi: 10.1115/1.4029685 History: Received August 14, 2014; Revised January 27, 2015; Online February 23, 2015

The authors previously developed a new fabrication method for a metal nanodot array, by combination of nanogroove grid patterning and thermal dewetting of metal deposited on a substrate. However, a comprehensive understanding of the thermal dewetting mechanism is necessary to improve the quality and control the variation of the metallic nanodot array. In this study, thermal dewetting-induced nanodot agglomeration mechanism is studied from a theoretical point of view. An analytical model is proposed, based on the total free energy of a dot and substrate system. The theoretical minimum and natural dot sizes show the same trend with an increase of contact angle. The theoretical model is validated by the experimental results.

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Figures

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Fig. 1

Nanodot array fabrication by thermal dewetting method

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Fig. 2

NPF tester used for groove grid patterning

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Fig. 3

Knife edge tool made of single crystal diamond

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Fig. 4

FE-SEM micrographs of gold deposited specimens. (a) Groove grid patterned on the deposited gold film; (b) nanodot array agglomerated from the gold film patterned as 100 nm grid; (c) nanodot array agglomerated from the gold film patterned as 1000 nm grid, annealing was at 700 °C for 10 min; and (d) nanodots agglomerated by thermal dewetting without grid patterning.

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Fig. 5

Thermal dewetting process of a metal film deposited on a substrate. (a) Many voids appear on the metal film in the beginning of the thermal dewetting process. (b) These voids are widened and connected to the adjacent voids. (c) As growth of these voids, they separate metal islands from the metal film. (d) Metal dots are agglomerated.

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Fig. 6

Geometrical model of a metal and substrate system in agglomeration

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Fig. 7

Variation of the free energies against the dot diameter ξ. Simulation parameters are θc = 90 deg,γM = 1,γS = 1,γI = 1,ξ0 = 50,(D0 = 500 nm,A = 1.96 × 105 nm2,t = 10 nm).

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Fig. 8

Variation of the minimum dot diameter ξmin against the contact angle θc

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Fig. 9

FE-SEM micrographs of agglomerated dots on the quartz glass substrates treated with various conditions: (a) SiO2 deposition, (b) no treatment, (c) sputter etching 1 min, and (d) sputter etching 2 min

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Fig. 10

Comparison between the natural dot size (experimental) and the theoretical minimum dot diameter

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Fig. 11

Geometrical model of random nanodots

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Fig. 12

Variation of function f(θ¯) against the contact angle θ¯

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