Research Papers

Laser-Energized Plasmonics for Nanopatterning Medical Devices

[+] Author and Article Information
P. A. Molian

Department of Mechanical and
Manufacturing Engineering,
St. Cloud State University,
St. Cloud, MN 56301
e-mail: pamolian@stcloudstate.edu

Contributed by the Manufacturing Engineering Division of ASME for publication in the JOURNAL OF MICRO- AND NANO-MANUFACTURING. Manuscript received January 16, 2015; final manuscript received May 19, 2015; published online June 24, 2015. Assoc. Editor: Nicholas Fang.

J. Micro Nano-Manuf 3(3), 031003 (Sep 01, 2015) (8 pages) Paper No: JMNM-15-1004; doi: 10.1115/1.4030680 History: Received January 16, 2015; Revised May 19, 2015; Online June 24, 2015

A scalable, prototype plasmonic nanomanufacturing system was designed, built, and tested for patterning nanostructures on the surfaces of drug-eluting stents (DES), the objective being to prevent the late-stent thrombosis (LST). Nanopatterning, unlike micro/macropatterning, of DES has proven to provide optimal, rapid, and preferential endothelial cell (EC) attachment (antithrombosis) while not significantly affecting shear-mediated platelet activation (prothrombosis). In this work, laser-induced, high-density surface plasmon polaritons (SPPs) were generated and utilized to produce nanostructures on the surfaces of DES by electric field enhancement mechanism. The scalability aspects such as downsizing the feature, improving the precision, increasing the throughput, and reducing the cost were investigated. Results indicated fairly uniform nanostructures; high throughput; excellent repeatability and resolution; significant cost savings; and potential for high retention of drug dose in the stent. The work represents an unprecedented area in nanomanufacturing where the basic science contribution is to harness the energy from plasmon polaritons by effectively “customizing” and “controlling” their propagation, while the engineering contribution is a scalability approach to reliably nanopattern medical devices in high volume with nanometer resolution. The nanomanufacturing system developed in this study may be an enabling technology to strongly impact other fields such as semiconductors, organic solar cells, and nano-electromechanical systems (NEMS).

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Fig. 1

Schematic of plasmonic nanomanufacturing: (a) process and (b) system

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Fig. 2

SEM images of silicon with SU-8 photoresist: (a) before plasmonics patterning and (b) after plasmonics patterning

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Fig. 3

Phase contrast AFM images of chemically etched sample in to reveal nanostructures in silicon

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Fig. 4

Laser-energized plasmonic nanopatterned nitinol showing 60–80 nm features

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Fig. 5

Light intensity distribution at (a) 20 nm below the exit of hole and (b) 50 nm below the exit of hole. The location of mask is at the edge of the nanohole.

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Fig. 6

(a) A schematic of laboratory plasmonics nanomanufacturing system for scalability studies and (b) a photograph of laboratory plasmonics nanomanufacturing system for scalability studies

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Fig. 7

Plasmonic lens: (a) alumina membrane containing nanoarray holes and (b) complete plasmonic lens where aluminum is sputtered on alumina membrane and supported on a quartz substrate; the lens is mounted on an optical holder



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