Research Papers

Three-Dimensional Printing of Nanoscale Powders Using Laser Shockwaves

[+] Author and Article Information
P. A. Molian

Department of Mechanical and
Manufacturing Engineering,
St. Cloud State University,
St. Cloud, MN 56301
e-mail: pamolian@stcloudstate.edu

Contributed by the Manufacturing Engineering Division of ASME for publication in the JOURNAL OF MICRO- AND NANO-MANUFACTURING. Manuscript received June 26, 2015; final manuscript received August 23, 2015; published online September 22, 2015. Assoc. Editor: Bin Wei.

J. Micro Nano-Manuf 3(4), 041006 (Sep 22, 2015) (10 pages) Paper No: JMNM-15-1039; doi: 10.1115/1.4031462 History: Received June 26, 2015; Revised August 23, 2015

A new three-dimensional (3D) printing process designated as shockwave-induced freeform technique (SWIFT) is explored for fabricating microparts from nanopowders. SWIFT consists of generating shockwaves using a laser beam, applying these shocks to pressure sinter nanoparticles at room temperature, and creating structures and devices by the traditional layer-by-layer formation. Shockwave cold compaction of nanoscale powders has the capability to overcome limitations, such as shrinkage, porosity, rough surface, and wide tolerance, normally encountered in hot sintering processes, such as selective laser sintering. In this study, the window of operating parameters and the underlying physics of SWIFT were investigated using a high-energy Q-switched Nd: YAG laser and nanodiamond (ND) powders. Results indicate the potential of SWIFT for fabricating high-performance diamond microtools with high aspect ratios, smooth surfaces, and sharp edges. The drawback is that the SWIFT process does not work for micro-sized powders.

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Fig. 1

Schematic experimental setup for the generation of laser shockwaves

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Fig. 2

Schematic of nanoparticle fluidization setup

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Fig. 3

Schematic of SWIFT process where nanoparticles are fed to the chamber through fluidized bed and then subjected to laser shockwaves

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Fig. 4

Single-pulse shockwave sintering effects (a) Sintered zone and (b) surface morphology

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Fig. 5

Effect of multiple shocks: (a) one (0.4 W, 1 Hz) and (b) five (2 W, 5 Hz)

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Fig. 6

Multiple shocks (ten) layer processed using 4 W, 10 Hz

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Fig. 7

Laser shock sintered 3D part for a thickness of 250 μm

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Fig. 8

Hardness of laser shock sintered ND

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Fig. 9

Micromotor pattern generated by the SWIFT process

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Fig. 10

Raman spectrum of unshocked raw powder of ND

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Fig. 11

Raman spectra of various regions in laser shocked ND sample

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Fig. 12

Phase diagram of nanocarbon [31]

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Fig. 13

Schematic of the domain design to study ND particle phase change and binding under external pressing

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Fig. 14

Initial atomic configuration. The red dots represent the copper atoms and blue ones stand for diamond. Laser irradiated copper cube in negative z direction. Diamond particles (comprising of one full and two half particles) is of radius 2.85 nm in x–y plane. Copper is 9.94 nm in z direction and 2.85 nm in x direction. Diamond and copper are of 0.889 nm thickness in the y direction. The gap between copper and diamond is set to be 1 nm.

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Fig. 15

Radial distribution function for diamond: (a) At t = 5 fs, both long-range and short-range peak are visible and (b) however, when it comes to 40 ps, long-range peaks disappear

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Fig. 16

The change in nearest atomic distance. From 38 ps to 40 ps, the nearest atomic distance drops from 1.55 Å to 1.45 Å.



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