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Technical Brief

Silver Nanoparticle Formation on Metal Substrate Under Concentration-Limited Condition

[+] Author and Article Information
Yong X. Gan

Department of Mechanical Engineering,
California State Polytechnic University, Pomona,
3801 West Temple Avenue,
Pomona, CA 91768
e-mail: yxgan@cpp.edu

Gustavo R. Tavares

Department of Mechanical Engineering,
California State Polytechnic University, Pomona,
3801 West Temple Avenue,
Pomona, CA 91768;
Department of Electrical Engineering,
State University of Maringa,
Maringá–PR, 87020-900, Brazil
e-mail: gustavotavares92@hotmail.com

Rafhael S. Gonzaga

Department of Mechanical Engineering,
California State Polytechnic University, Pomona,
3801 West Temple Avenue,
Pomona, CA 91768;
Department of Mechanical Engineering,
Federal University of Campina Grande,
Campina Grande–PB, 58429-900, Brazil
e-mail: rafhagonzaga@hotmail.com

Ryan N. Gan

Diamond Bar High School,
21400 Pathfinder Road,
Diamond Bar, CA 91765
e-mail: ryangan45@yahoo.com

1Corresponding author.

Contributed by the Manufacturing Engineering Division of ASME for publication in the JOURNAL OF MICRO- AND NANO-MANUFACTURING. Manuscript received October 13, 2015; final manuscript received May 16, 2016; published online June 30, 2016. Assoc. Editor: Nicholas Fang.

J. Micro Nano-Manuf 4(3), 034502 (Jun 30, 2016) (6 pages) Paper No: JMNM-15-1073; doi: 10.1115/1.4033683 History: Received October 13, 2015; Revised May 16, 2016

Silver nanoparticles were electrodeposited from 0.3 M oxalic acid electrolyte on a pure aluminum working electrode under silver ion concentration-limited condition. A silver wire was held in a glass tube containing 1.0 M KCl solution as the counter electrode. Ion exchange between the glass tube and the main electrodeposition bath through a capillary was driven by the overpotentials as high as 10 V supplied by an electrochemical workstation. Due to the reaction between chlorine anion and silver cation to form AgCl solid at the Ag/AgCl electrode, the silver ion concentration-limited condition holds in the electrolyte. It is found that silver grows at the aluminum working electrode to form nanoparticles with an average size of about 52.4 ± 13.6 nm. With the increasing of the deposition time, the silver nanoparticles aggregate into clusters. The silver particle clusters are separated with approximately 112.6 ± 19.7 nm due to the hydrogen bubble-induced self-assembling, which is shown by the confined deposition of silver on a gold coating. The surface roughness of the aluminum substrate leads to the reduced uniformity of silver nanoparticle nucleation and growth.

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Figures

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Fig. 1

Voltage–current response associated with cyclic voltammetry tests: (a) both anodic and cathodic polarizations of the working electrode in a small scan potential range from 0 V to 1.75 V and (b) reaction-limited and concentration-limited stages in the wide scan potential range from 0 V to 10 V

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Fig. 2

Electron microscopic analysis of the silver nanoparticles on working electrode: (a) SEM image of the silver nanoparticles and the clusters and (b) energy dispersive X-ray spectrum showing the elemental analysis results

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Fig. 3

Statistic analysis results showing (a) size diagram and (b) particle cluster separation distance diagram of the silver nanoparticles deposited at the pure aluminum substrate

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Fig. 4

Schematic and image showing the hydrogen-caused self-assembling of the silver nanoparticles: (a) illustration of hydrogen evolution induced self-assembling and (b) optical micrograph showing the confined growth of silver into dendritic structure

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Fig. 5

SEM images showing the effect of substrate surface condition on the nucleation of silver nanoparticles: (a) silver nanoparticle nucleation at burr or groove sites and (b) preferred growth of silver particle in those rough areas to form particle clusters

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Fig. 6

SEM images showing the effect of substrate surface condition on the growth of silver nanoparticles: (a) silver nanoparticle clusters and island formation and (b) reduced uniformity of silver particle growth along a vertically aligned groove on the aluminum substrate

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