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Research Papers

A Multilayer Strategy for Improving the Abrasion Resistance of Silica Nanoparticle-Based Motheye Antireflective Coatings on Glass

[+] Author and Article Information
Barath Palanisamy

School of Mechanical, Industrial and
Manufacturing Engineering,
Oregon State University,
Corvallis, OR 97124
e-mail: barathp@gmail.com

Seung-Yeol Han

CSD Nano, Inc.,
Corvallis, OR 97124

Brian K. Paul

School of Mechanical, Industrial and
Manufacturing Engineering,
Oregon State University,
Corvallis, OR 97124

1Corresponding author.

Contributed by the Manufacturing Engineering Division of ASME for publication in the JOURNAL OF MICRO- AND NANO-MANUFACTURING. Manuscript received December 6, 2015; final manuscript received June 2, 2016; published online July 8, 2016. Assoc. Editor: Don A. Lucca.

J. Micro Nano-Manuf 4(3), 031005 (Jul 08, 2016) (10 pages) Paper No: JMNM-15-1083; doi: 10.1115/1.4033861 History: Received December 06, 2015; Revised June 02, 2016

Motheye antireflective coatings (ARCs) are based on periodic or stochastic features with dimensions below the wavelength of visible light which can be used to produce a gradient index of refraction between air and the substrate. In this work, two silica nanoparticle-based motheye ARCs of similar optical performance, but different physical structures, were deposited on glass and characterized for mechanical behavior to provide insights into the mechanisms for abrasion resistance in these films. Optical and mechanical performances were evaluated in light of the mechanical properties and physical structure of the films using models for describing the mechanical behavior of the films. The results show that the three-layer coating was found to have better abrasion resistance than a simple single layer coating largely due to better crack nucleation resistance and scratch resistance. The simple single-layer film showed better crack propagation resistance than the three-layer film due to the existence of nanoparticles (NPs) throughout the cross section of the film. The three-layer film appears to have higher work of adhesion based on exhibiting better delamination and spallation resistance.

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Figures

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Fig. 1

Schematic of abrasion test rig for felt abrasion test

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Fig. 2

Schematic of the silica-based ARC for (a) 1L and (b) 3L

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Fig. 3

Performance indicators as a function of annealing time and temperature for (top) the 1L and (bottom) the 3L films

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Fig. 9

Scratch resistance depicted using (top) critical loads (LC1) and delamination resistance depicted using (bottom) work of adhesion

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Fig. 10

Spallation resistance depicted using strain energy release rate

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Fig. 6

Simultaneous DSC/TGA and mass spec analysis during annealing of single-layer TMOS-NP-base gel film

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Fig. 5

Cross-sectional transmission electron micrographs of the films (top) 1L and (bottom) 3L. Green, red, and yellow conditions are shown from left to right (see online figure for color).

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Fig. 4

Top surface scanning electron micrographs of the films: (a) 1L and (b) 3L. Green, red, and yellow conditions are shown from top to bottom (see online figure for color).

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Fig. 8

Crack resistance depicted as critical load for cracking under indentation and fracture toughness

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Fig. 7

Mechanical properties of 1L and 3L. Line plot against right y-axis on hardness chart shows the coating thickness.

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