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Research Papers

The Leidenfrost Effect at the Nanoscale

[+] Author and Article Information
Jhonatam Cordeiro

Department of Industrial and
Systems Engineering,
North Carolina A&T State University,
419 McNair Hall,
1601 East Market Street,
Greensboro, NC 27411
e-mail: jcrodrig@aggies.ncat.edu

Salil Desai

Department of Industrial and
Systems Engineering,
North Carolina A&T State University,
423 McNair Hall,
1601 East Market Street,
Greensboro, NC 27411
e-mail: sdesai@ncat.edu

1Corresponding author.

Contributed by the Manufacturing Engineering Division of ASME for publication in the JOURNAL OF MICRO- AND NANO-MANUFACTURING. Manuscript received May 30, 2016; final manuscript received August 22, 2016; published online October 10, 2016. Assoc. Editor: Rajiv Malhotra.

J. Micro Nano-Manuf 4(4), 041001 (Oct 10, 2016) (7 pages) Paper No: JMNM-16-1021; doi: 10.1115/1.4034607 History: Received May 30, 2016; Revised August 22, 2016

Nanotechnology has been presenting successful applications in several fields, such as electronics, medicine, energy, and new materials. However, the high cost of investment in facilities, equipment, and materials as well as the lack of some experimental analysis at the nanoscale can limit research in nanotechnology. The implementation of accurate computer models can alleviate this problem. This research investigates the Leidenfrost effect at the nanoscale using molecular dynamics (MDs) simulation. Models of water droplets with diameters of 4 nm and 10 nm were simulated over gold and silicon substrates. To induce the Leidenfrost effect, droplets at 293 K were deposited on heated substrates at 373 K. As a baseline, simulations were run with substrates at room temperature (293 K). Results show that for substrates at 293 K, the 4 nm droplet has higher position variability than the 10 nm droplets. In addition, for substrates at 373 K, the 4 nm droplets have higher velocities than the 10 nm droplets. The wettability of the substrate also influences the Leidenfrost effect. Droplets over the gold substrate, which has hydrophobic characteristics, have higher velocities as compared to droplets over silicon that has a hydrophilic behavior. Moreover, the Leidenfrost effect was observed at the boiling temperature of water (373 K) which is a significantly lower temperature than reported in previous experiments at the microscale. This research lays the foundation for investigating the fluid–structure interaction within several droplet based micro- and nano-manufacturing processes.

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Figures

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Fig. 1

Initial configuration of the MD models of 10 nm water droplets over a substrate

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Fig. 2

Simulations at 293 K (time period = 2 ns): (a) 4 nm water droplet over gold, (b) 4 nm water droplet over silicon, (c) 10 nm water droplet over gold, and (d) 10 nm water droplet over silicon

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Fig. 3

Top view of moving droplets over (a) gold and (b) silicon at 373 K at time 0 ns, 1 ns, and 2 ns

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Fig. 4

Simulations at 373 K (time period = 2 ns): (a) 4 nm water droplet over gold, (b) 4 nm water droplet over silicon, (c) 10 nm water droplet over gold, and (d) 10 nm water droplet over silicon

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Fig. 5

(a) Kinetic energy (kcal/mol) and (b) temperature (K) of 4 nm droplet over gold as a function of the distance away from the substrate surface

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Fig. 6

(a) Kinetic energy (kcal/mol) and (b) temperature (K) of 10 nm droplet over gold as a function of the distance away from the substrate surface

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Fig. 7

Velocity of 4 nm and 10 nm droplets over gold and silicon substrates at 293 K

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Fig. 8

Velocity of 4 nm and 10 nm droplet over gold substrate at 373 K

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Fig. 9

Velocity of 4 nm and 10 nm droplet over silicon substrate at 373 K

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Fig. 10

Side view of (a) 10 nm droplet over gold and (b) 10 nm droplet over silicon

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