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Research Papers

Tip-Based Nanomanufacturing of Nanofluidics Using Atomic Force Microscopy

[+] Author and Article Information
Rapeepan Promyoo

Department of Mechanical Engineering,
Indiana University Purdue
University Indianapolis,
723 West Michigan Street, SL260,
Indianapolis, IN 46202
e-mail: rpromyoo@iupui.edu

Hazim El-Mounayri

Department of Mechanical Engineering,
Indiana University Purdue
University Indianapolis,
723 West Michigan Street, SL260,
Indianapolis, IN 46202
e-mail: helmouna@iupui.edu

Mangilal Agarwal

Department of Mechanical Engineering,
Indiana University Purdue
University Indianapolis,
723 West Michigan Street, SL260,
Indianapolis, IN 46202
e-mail: agarwal@iupui.edu

Varun Kumar Karingula

Department of Mechanical Engineering,
Indiana University Purdue
University Indianapolis,
723 West Michigan Street, SL260,
Indianapolis, IN 46202
e-mail: k.varun.k@gmail.com

Kody Varahramyan

Department of Electrical and
Computer Engineering,
Integrated Nanosystems Development Institute,
723 West Michigan Street, SL260,
Indianapolis, IN 46202
e-mail: kvarahra@iupui.edu

1Corresponding author.

Contributed by the Manufacturing Engineering Division of ASME for publication in the JOURNAL OF MICRO- AND NANO-MANUFACTURING. Manuscript received June 5, 2016; final manuscript received August 30, 2016; published online October 10, 2016. Assoc. Editor: Rajiv Malhotra.

J. Micro Nano-Manuf 4(4), 041003 (Oct 10, 2016) (7 pages) Paper No: JMNM-16-1024; doi: 10.1115/1.4034608 History: Received June 05, 2016; Revised August 30, 2016

Presently, nanomanufacturing capabilities limit the commercialization of a broader range of nanoscale structures with higher complexity, greater precision and accuracy, and a substantially improved performance. Atomic force microscopy (AFM)-based nanomachining is a promising technique to address current limitations and is considered a potential manufacturing (MFG) tool for operations such as machining, patterning, and assembling with in situ metrology and visualization. Most existing techniques for fabrication of nanofluidic channels involve the use of electron-beam lithography, which is a very expensive process that requires a lengthy calibration procedure. In this work, atomic force microscopy (AFM) is employed in the fabrication of nanofluidic channels for medical applications. Channels with various depths and widths are fabricated using AFM indentation and scratching. A nanoscale channel is mainly used in the study of the molecular behavior at single molecule level. The resulting device can be used for detecting, analyzing and separating biomolecules, DNA stretching, and separation of elite group of lysosome and other viruses. The nanochannels are integrated between microchannels and act as filters to separate biomolecules. Sharply developed vertical microchannels are produced from deep reaction ion etching. Poly-dimethylsiloxane (PDMS) bonding is performed to close the top surface of the silicon device. An experimental setup is used for testing by flowing fluid through the channels. A cost evaluation shows 47.7% manufacturing-time and 60.6% manufacturing-cost savings, compared to more traditional processes.

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Figures

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Fig. 1

Fabrication process of microchannels

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Fig. 3

Schematic of the designed device

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Fig. 4

AFM images (a) and cross-sectional profiles (b) of nanochannels conducted with different applied forces

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Fig. 5

Relation between scratching depth and applied forces

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Fig. 6

AFM images (a) and cross-sectional profiles (b) of nanochannels conducted with different tip-surface approaching speeds at step over of 40 nm

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Fig. 7

AFM images (a) and cross-sectional profiles (b) of nanochannels conducted with different tip-surface approaching speeds at step over of 60 nm

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Fig. 8

Relation between scratching depth and tip-surface approaching speed

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Fig. 9

Relation between scratching depth and scratch rate

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Fig. 10

AFM cross-sectional profiles of nanochannel on silicon device

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Fig. 11

Scanning electron microscopy (SEM) image showing the location of the nanochannel

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Fig. 12

Fluid flow test setup

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Fig. 13

Pipes connected to inlet and outlet of device

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Fig. 14

Device after fluid test

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