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Research Papers

Fabrication of a Micro/Nanofluidic Platform Via Three-Axis Robotic Dispensing System

[+] Author and Article Information
Hanwen Yuan

Bioengineering Department,
University of Louisville,
Louisville, KY 40292
e-mail: hanwen.yuan@louisville.edu

Scott D. Cambron

Bioengineering Department,
University of Louisville,
Louisville, KY 40292
e-mail: scott.cambron@louisville.edu

Mark M. Crain

Bioengineering Department,
University of Louisville,
Louisville, KY 40292
e-mail: Mcrain3@gmail.com

Robert S. Keynton

Professor
Mem. ASME
Bioengineering Department,
University of Louisville,
419 Lutz Hall,
Louisville, KY 40292
e-mail: robert.keynton@louisville.edu

Contributed by the Manufacturing Engineering Division of ASME for publication in the JOURNAL OF MICRO- AND NANO-MANUFACTURING. Manuscript received June 6, 2016; final manuscript received August 31, 2016; published online October 10, 2016. Assoc. Editor: Rajiv Malhotra.

J. Micro Nano-Manuf 4(4), 041005 (Oct 10, 2016) (6 pages) Paper No: JMNM-16-1026; doi: 10.1115/1.4034611 History: Received June 06, 2016; Revised August 31, 2016

The purpose of this work is to introduce a new fabrication technique for creating a fluidic platform with embedded micro- or nanoscale channels. This new technique includes: (1) a three-axis robotic dispensing system for drawing micro/nanoscale suspended polymer fibers at prescribed locations, combined with (2) dry film resist photolithography, and (3) replica molding. This new technique provides flexibility and precise control of the micro- and nano-channel location with the ability to create multiple channels of varying sizes embedded in a single fluidic platform. These types of micro/nanofluidic platforms are attractive for numerous applications, such as the separation of biomolecules, cell transport, and transport across cell membranes via electroporation. The focus of this work is on the development of a fabrication technique for the creation of a nanoscale electroporation device.

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Figures

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Fig. 1

Schematic of the design for the micro/nanofluidic electroporation devices (Note: To make the details viewable, the dimensions are not to scale.)

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Fig. 2

Flowchart of the fabrication process for the micro/nanofluidic devices

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Fig. 3

Custom-made collimated UV light source and exposure system

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Fig. 4

Image of the three-axis robotic dispensing system placed in a temperature-controlled environmental chamber. The inset is an enlarged image of the microscope and pressurized injection system. Adapted from Ref. [14].

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Fig. 5

Schematic of the direct-write process for creating the micro/nanofiber using three-axis robotic dispensing system

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Fig. 6

Top image: Scanning electron microscope (SEM) image of the dry film resist mold on a glass substrate with PMMA microscale fibers (top fiber: d1 = 1.96 μm and bottom fiber: d2 = 1.74 μm). Bottom image: optical microscope image (100×) of a PDMS device with two embedded submicron channels (top channel: d1 = 938 nm and bottom channel: d2 = 984 nm) after etching the fibers via sonication in an acetone bath, the separation distance between the two submicron channels is 3 μm.

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Fig. 7

Confocal image of the PDMS device with the dam between the two microchambers and the submicron channel (∼954 nm) embedded in the dam

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