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Research Papers

Polishing Characteristics of Transparent Polycrystalline Yttrium Aluminum Garnet Ceramics Using Magnetic Field-Assisted Finishing

[+] Author and Article Information
Daniel Ross

Department of Mechanical and
Aerospace Engineering,
University of Florida,
226 MAE-B,
P.O. Box 116300,
Gainesville, FL 32611
e-mail: Dross124@ufl.edu

Yanming Wang

Department of Mechanical and
Aerospace Engineering,
University of Florida,
226 MAE-B,
P.O. Box 116300,
Gainesville, FL 32611
e-mail: pattonwang@gmail.com

Hadyan Ramadhan

Department of Mechanical and
Aerospace Engineering,
University of Florida,
226 MAE-B,
P.O. Box 116300,
Gainesville, FL 32611
e-mail: hadyanramadhan@gmail.com

Hitomi Yamaguchi

Fellow ASME
Department of Mechanical and
Aerospace Engineering,
University of Florida,
226 MAE-B,
P.O. Box 116300,
Gainesville, FL 32611
e-mail: hitomiy@ufl.edu

Contributed by the Manufacturing Engineering Division of ASME for publication in the JOURNAL OF MICRO- AND NANO-MANUFACTURING. Manuscript received May 2, 2016; final manuscript received September 1, 2016; published online October 19, 2016. Assoc. Editor: Martin Jun.

J. Micro Nano-Manuf 4(4), 041007 (Oct 19, 2016) (9 pages) Paper No: JMNM-16-1016; doi: 10.1115/1.4034641 History: Received May 02, 2016; Revised September 01, 2016

Transparent polycrystalline yttrium aluminum garnet (YAG) ceramics have garnered an increased level of interest for high-power laser applications due to their ability to be manufactured in large sizes and to be doped in relatively substantial concentrations. However, surface characteristics have a direct effect on the lasing ability of these materials, and a lack of a fundamental understanding of the polishing mechanisms of these ceramics remains a challenge to their utilization. The aim of this paper is to study the polishing characteristics of YAG ceramics using magnetic field-assisted finishing (MAF). MAF is a useful process for studying the polishing characteristics of a material due to the extensive variability of, and fine control over, the polishing parameters. An experimental setup was developed for YAG ceramic workpieces, and using this equipment with diamond abrasives, the surfaces were polished to subnanometer scales. When polishing these subnanometer surfaces with 0–0.1 μm mean diameter diamond abrasive, the severity of the initial surface defects governed whether improvements to the surface would occur at these locations. Polishing subnanometer surfaces with colloidal silica abrasive caused a worsening of defects, resulting in increasing roughness. Colloidal silica causes uneven material removal between grains and an increase in material removal at grain boundaries causing the grain structure of the YAG ceramic workpiece to become pronounced. This effect also occurred with either abrasive when polishing with iron particles, used in MAF to press abrasives against a workpiece surface, that are smaller than the grain size of the YAG ceramic.

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Figures

Grahic Jump Location
Fig. 1

MAF processing principle schematic

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Fig. 2

Experimental setup: (a) top view and (b) front view

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Fig. 3

Tool magnet components and iron particle climb: (a) tool magnet with no rubber magnet cap, iron brush deterioration: (i) initial iron particle position and (ii) particle climb after rotating for 10 mins and (b) tool magnet with rubber magnet cap, iron brush maintained: (i) initial iron particle position and (ii) particle climb after rotating for 10 mins

Grahic Jump Location
Fig. 4

Relationship between abrasive size and roughness: (a) 30 mins polishing and (b) 60 mins polishing

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Fig. 5

Three-dimensional oblique plots of surfaces, rough polishing using 0–2 μm diamond abrasive for 30 mins—(a) surface 1: (i) initial surface Sa: 1.6 nm and (ii) finished surface Sa: 2.9 nm, (b) surface 2: (i) initial surface Sa: 4.6 nm and (ii) finished surface Sa: 3.0 nm, and (c) surface 3: (i) initial surface Sa: 10.8 nm and (ii) finished surface Sa: 2.7 nm

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Fig. 6

Relationship between polishing time and roughness, fine diamond test 1: (a) positions with dramatic worsening, (b) positions with gradual worsening, and (c) positions with gradual improvement

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Fig. 7

Relationship between polishing time and roughness, fine diamond test 2: (a) positions with gradual worsening and (b) positions with gradual improvement

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Fig. 8

Three-dimensional oblique plots of surface, polishing with 0–0.1 μm diamond abrasive for 5 mins—(a) improving surface, X = −2 mm in fine diamond test 1: (i) initial surface Sa: 0.8 nm and (ii) finished surface Sa: 0.6 nm; (b) gradual worsening surface, X = 6 mm in fine diamond test 2: (i) initial surface Sa: 1.0 nm and (ii) finished surface Sa: 5.9 nm; and (c) dramatic worsening surface, X = 6 mm in fine diamond test 1: (i) initial surface Sa: 1.0 nm and (ii) finished surface Sa: 5.9 nm

Grahic Jump Location
Fig. 9

Relationship between polishing time and roughness, changing iron particles

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Fig. 10

Topography at x = −2 mm, fine diamond test 4, 0–0.1 μm diameter diamond abrasive with varying iron particle size: (a) initial surface Sa: 0.9 nm, (b) 44 μm iron particles Sa: 1.3 nm, (c) 7 μm iron particles Sa: 0.8 nm, and (d) 1 μm iron particles Sa: 1.1 nm

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Fig. 11

Relationship between polishing time and roughness, colloidal silica

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Fig. 12

Topography of x = −5 mm, silica test 2, 44–149 μm iron particles: (a) initial surface Sa = 0.9 nm, (b) colloidal silica, 5 mins Sa = 1.1 nm, (c) colloidal silica, 5 mins Sa = 1.3 nm, and (d) colloidal silica, 5 mins Sa = 1.4 nm

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Fig. 13

Relationship between polishing time and roughness, changing iron particles

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Fig. 14

Topography of origin, x = 0 mm, silica iron test 1, colloidal silica with varying iron particle size: (a) initial surface Sa: 1.0 nm, (b) 44 μm iron particles Sa: 1.1 nm, (c) 7 μm iron particles Sa: 1.4 nm, and (d) 1 μm iron particles Sa: 1.7 nm

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