Many fabrication techniques have demonstrated the ability to fabricate small quantities of nanomaterials, nanostructures, and nanodevices for device testing purposes. Such nanoscale devices have novel physical, chemical, and biological properties that derive from their nano-to-meso length scales, where unique properties between atomic and bulk behaviors can be obtained. The design and fabrication of such devices is a field of active research over the world. However, manufacturing such devices at an industrially relevant scale requires scalable production of nanomaterials, nanostructures, devices, and systems while retaining functional reliability, low cost, and high throughput. The innovation of new processes for large-area continuous manufacturing of nanomaterials and mesoscale structures assembled from these nanomaterials is a key component of this thrust. Such processes may include top-down and bottom-up approaches as well as self-assembly and hybrid processes, e.g., integration of top-down and bottom-up approaches via physical, chemical, biological, and thermal means. Control of such processes requires understanding of the process physics, thus creating the need for theoretical and computational developments related to nanoscale phenomenon that are relevant to control of product quality, reliability, and throughput. Another critical need is reliable, high-speed, high-resolution, online metrology and real-time control. This includes design principles and architectures for nanoscale measurement and processing as well as new design automation tools for assembling systems of large numbers of heterogeneous nanocomponents.