Microstructured surfaces have extensive applications in a wide array of fields due to their improved functional performance. Existing manufacturing methods for these surfaces fall short of efficiency for volume production or are only applicable to a specific class of materials. In this paper, an innovative and highly efficient machining method, elliptical vibration texturing (EVT), is proposed for rapid generation of microdimples on planar engineered surfaces. The cutting tool of the EVT process vibrates along an elliptical trajectory. The elliptical vibrations, when coupled with a high cutting velocity, impose microdimples onto workpiece surfaces while machining. The high productivity is achieved by adopting a newly designed tertiary motion generator, which is able to deliver required elliptical vibrations at an ultrasonic frequency. The shape and distribution of the generated dimple patterns have been theoretically analyzed and predicted by a proposed simulation model. Preliminary texturing results using aluminum and brass as workpieces are given to validate the process principle and simulation model.