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Research Papers

Self-Assembled Axisymmetric Microscale Periodic Wrinkles on Elastomer Fibers

[+] Author and Article Information
Jian Geng

School of Mechanical and Materials Engineering,
Washington State University,
Pullman, WA 99164
e-mail: jian.geng@wsu.edu

Md. Taibur Rahman

School of Mechanical and Materials Engineering,
Washington State University,
Pullman, WA 99164
e-mail: mdtaibur.rahman@wsu.edu

Rahul Panat

School of Mechanical and Materials Engineering,
Washington State University,
Pullman, WA 99164
e-mail: rahul.panat@wsu.edu

Lei Li

School of Mechanical and Materials Engineering,
Washington State University,
Pullman, WA 99164
e-mail: lei.li2@wsu.edu

1Corresponding author.

Contributed by the Manufacturing Engineering Division of ASME for publication in the JOURNAL OF MICRO- AND NANO-MANUFACTURING. Manuscript received September 25, 2016; final manuscript received February 15, 2017; published online March 24, 2017. Assoc. Editor: Nicholas Fang.

J. Micro Nano-Manuf 5(2), 021006 (Mar 24, 2017) (6 pages) Paper No: JMNM-16-1050; doi: 10.1115/1.4036112 History: Received September 25, 2016; Revised February 15, 2017

In this work, we demonstrate a novel scalable microscale manufacturing technique that uses structural self-assembly to create controlled ring-shaped periodic perturbations in the form of wrinkles on a polymer fiber concentric to the fiber axis. The wrinkles are generated by stretching a soft polymer fiber made of polydimethylsiloxane (PDMS) to strains ranging from 10% to 200%, followed by an ultraviolet (UV)/ozone exposure to create a hard SiOx film over the soft fiber before releasing the fiber strain. We identified the key variables controlling the wavelength of the microscale wrinkles. Possible applications of the method in optical and other devices are discussed.

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Figures

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Fig. 4

Relationships of formed wrinkles with forming conditions. (a) Wavelength of the wrinkles (λ) as a function of UV exposure time (min) for a 0.4 mm diameter PDMS fiber at different prestrain levels. (b) Relationship between prestrain (%) and λ for the case when fibers were not rotated during UV exposure and (c) when fibers were rotated during UV exposure. (d) Wavelength as a function of UV exposure time for different fiber diameters, (e) thickness of the SiOx layer, hf (μm) as a function of the UV exposure time (min) for different prestrain for a fiber with 0.4 mm diameter. The error bars represent one standard deviation.

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Fig. 3

Images of PDMS fibers with axisymmetric wrinkles fabricated using the micromanufacturing method proposed in this study. (a) Optical image of wrinkled fiber at different magnifications showing wrinkle wavelength and amplitude. (b) Optical image showing the boundary between the fiber exposed to UV and that the part not exposed to UV during the stretched state. We observe the wrinkle formation in the area exposed to UV. (c) SEM micrographs of the fiber at different magnifications showing the axisymmetric wrinkle morphology. Cracks on the wrinkle surface can also be observed. For fibers shown in images (a)–(c), the entire fiber circumference was exposed to the UV light during the wrinkle fabrication. (d) SEM micrographs of the fiber at different magnifications showing the wrinkle morphology on one side of the fiber. Only one side of the fiber circumference was exposed to the UV light during the fabrication.

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Fig. 2

Processes of wet-etching method of flat PDMS substrates: (a)–(c) schematics of the wet etching process and (d) image of an etched PDMS planar substrate

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Fig. 1

Schematic of the wrinkle formation process: (a)–(c) case where the fiber does not rotate during UV exposure and (d)–(f) case where the fiber rotates during UV exposure

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