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Research Papers

Interface Characterization of Al–Cu Microlaminates Fabricated By Electrically Assisted Roll Bonding

[+] Author and Article Information
Marzyeh Moradi

Department of Materials Science
and Engineering,
Carnegie Mellon University,
5000 Forbes Avenue,
Roberts Engineering Hall,
Pittsburgh, PA 15213

Man-Kwan Ng, Taekyung Lee, Jian Cao

Department of Mechanical Engineering,
Northwestern University,
2145 Sheridan Road,
Evanston, IL 60208-3111

Yoosuf N. Picard

Department of Materials Science
and Engineering,
Carnegie Mellon University,
5000 Forbes Avenue,
Roberts Engineering Hall,
Pittsburgh, PA 15213
e-mail: yoosuf@andrew.cmu.edu

1Corresponding author.

Contributed by the Manufacturing Engineering Division of ASME for publication in the JOURNAL OF MICRO- AND NANO-MANUFACTURING. Manuscript received September 16, 2016; final manuscript received March 1, 2017; published online March 24, 2017. Assoc. Editor: Shiv G. Kapoor.

J. Micro Nano-Manuf 5(3), 031001 (Mar 24, 2017) (7 pages) Paper No: JMNM-16-1044; doi: 10.1115/1.4036149 History: Received September 16, 2016; Revised March 01, 2017

Interface characteristics of Al/Cu microlaminates fabricated by an electrically assisted roll bonding (EARB) process were studied to understand the underlying physical/chemical phenomena that lead to bond strength enhancement when applying electrical current during deformation. Peel tests were conducted for the Al/Cu roll-bonded laminates produced under 0 A, 50 A, and 150 A applied current. After peel tests using a microtensile machine, the fractured surfaces of both the Al and Cu–sides were examined using scanning electron microscopy (SEM) for fractography and SEM-based energy dispersive (EDS) analysis. Results revealed the strong dependence of the fracture path and its morphology on the strength of the bond, which is influenced by various phenomena occurring at the interface during EARB, such as microextrusion through surface microcracks, possible formation of intermetallic components and thermal softening during simultaneous application of strain and high current density.

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Figures

Grahic Jump Location
Fig. 1

(a) Schematic of electrically assisted microroll bonding process of Al/Cu sheets. The surface of the Al and Cu sheets is prepared by degreasing and wire brushing before roll bonding and (b) a folded stainless steel “clips” thin sheets together.

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Fig. 2

(a) Schematic, showing illustration of the peel test of Al/Cu roll bonded sheets being pulled by a microtensile machine and (b) peeling force profiles of electrically assisted Al/Cu roll bonded samples for 0 A, 50 A, and 150 A applied currents. Data belong to the peel test of the roll bonded sheets by 50% thickness reduction.

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Fig. 3

BSE/SEM images of the fractured surface of electrically assisted Al/Cu roll bonded sheets after the peel test in low and high magnifications for: (a)–(c) Al-side and (d)–(f) Cu-side; produced under 0 A, 50 A, and 150 A applied currents. Arrows refer to the features on the surface captured by BSE detector.

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Fig. 4

EDS of the fractured surface of electrically assisted AI/Cu roll bonded sheets under 0 A, 50 A, and 150 A applied currents after the peel test in low and high magnifications for: (a)–(c) Al-side and (d)–(f) Cu-side. Insets on the right show the corresponding EDS maps for Al and Cu elements individually. Particle-shape features distributed on Cu and Al‐sides belong to the detected Al/Cu elements, respectively.

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Fig. 5

(a) Average of surface roughness measured for Al andCu sheets before and after brushing, indicating a higher value of roughness on Al sheet as compared with Cu sheet. (b) Optical (left inset) of the Al surface after brushing showing an interconnected network of scratches/cracks produced on the surface of al sheets and corresponding roughness profile (right inset) captured by Zygo surface optical profilometer.

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Fig. 6

(a) Schematic of fracture path during the peel test at theinterface of Al and Cu roll bonded sheets. The suggested path goes through different regions marked as A, B, and C in the image corresponding to interface, Al-side and Cu-side, respectively. (b) Schematic of the formation of metallurgical bonds at the interface of roll bonded sheets produced by the formation of chemical bonding between Al and Cu atoms through the cracks created on the surface oxide layer during rolling.

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Fig. 7

Secondary electrons (SE) images of fractured surfaces observed for (a) 0 A, (b) 50 A, and (c) 150 A currents; in low and high (boxes) magnifications for: (a)–(c) Al-side and (e)–(f) Cu-side

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Fig. 8

SE images of fractured surfaces observed for 0, 50, and 150 A currents for: (a) Al-side and (b) Cu-side, showing the different types of features on the fractured surfaces indicated by numbers 1–5. Number 1 refers to unbounded areas, 2 to the Al/Cu particles on the Cu/Al-sides, 3 to the area that vein patterns are created, 4 to the faceted regions caused by shear of Al or Cu during detachment from their sides, and 5 to the regions that underwent brittle fracture during peeling, leaving microcracks on the surface.

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