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Research Papers

Two-Side Laser Processing Method for Producing High Aspect Ratio Microholes

[+] Author and Article Information
Vahid Nasrollahi

Department of Mechanical Engineering,
University of Birmingham,
Edgbaston, Birmingham B15 2TT, UK
e-mail: Vxn342@bham.ac.uk

Pavel Penchev

Department of Mechanical Engineering,
University of Birmingham,
Edgbaston, Birmingham B15 2TT, UK
e-mail: p.penchev@bham.ac.uk

Stefan Dimov

Department of Mechanical Engineering,
University of Birmingham,
Edgbaston, Birmingham B15 2TT, UK
e-mail: S.S.Dimov@bham.ac.uk

Lars Korner

Faculty of Engineering,
University of Nottingham,
University Park,
Nottingham NG7 2RD, UK
e-mail: Lars.Korner@nottingham.ac.uk

Richard Leach

Faculty of Engineering,
University of Nottingham,
University Park,
Nottingham NG7 2RD, UK
e-mail: Richard.Leach@nottingham.ac.uk

Kyunghan Kim

Korea Institute of Machinery & Materials,
Daejeon 34103, South Korea
e-mail: khkim@kimm.re.kr

1Corresponding author.

Contributed by the Manufacturing Engineering Division of ASME for publication in the JOURNAL OF MICRO- AND NANO-MANUFACTURING. Manuscript received March 20, 2017; final manuscript received August 7, 2017; published online September 28, 2017. Assoc. Editor: Nicholas Fang.

J. Micro Nano-Manuf 5(4), 041006 (Sep 28, 2017) (14 pages) Paper No: JMNM-17-1013; doi: 10.1115/1.4037645 History: Received March 20, 2017; Revised August 07, 2017

Laser microprocessing is a very attractive option for a growing number of industrial applications due to its intrinsic characteristics, such as high flexibility and process control and also capabilities for noncontact processing of a wide range of materials. However, there are some constrains that limit the applications of this technology, i.e., taper angles on sidewalls, edge quality, geometrical accuracy, and achievable aspect ratios of produced structures. To address these process limitations, a new method for two-side laser processing is proposed in this research. The method is described with a special focus on key enabling technologies for achieving high accuracy and repeatability in two-side laser drilling. The pilot implementation of the proposed processing configuration and technologies is discussed together with an in situ, on-machine inspection procedure to verify the achievable positional and geometrical accuracy. It is demonstrated that alignment accuracy better than 10 μm is achievable using this pilot two-side laser processing platform. In addition, the morphology of holes with circular and square cross sections produced with one-side laser drilling and the proposed method was compared in regard to achievable aspect ratios and holes' dimensional and geometrical accuracy and thus to make conclusions about its capabilities.

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Figures

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Fig. 1

Angular displacements of incident beam and (a) workpiece normal in regard to the A axis, Δα°, (b) workpiece normal in regard to the B axis, Δβ°, (c) A axis, Δψ°

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Fig. 2

Required adjustments in X and Y directions (dx, dy) due to (a) displacement of holes' positions in respect to the A axis and (b) the A axis not being parallel to the X axis, Δγ°

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Fig. 3

Required compensational movements in Z direction due to displacements between A axis and the center plane of the workpiece, ΔZ

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Fig. 4

The setting up procedure for determining initial coordinates of two through holes centers (points 5 and 6) and their corresponding coordinates (points 7 and 8, respectively) after a rotation by 180 deg

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Fig. 5

In situ, on-machine inspection method with a 3D metrology sensor: (a) the first side field of view and (b) the second side field of view

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Fig. 6

Three views of the used laser processing setup: (a) confocal sensor, (b) the focusing lens together with the stack of mechanical stages, and (c) the R25 sensor

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Fig. 7

The specially designed modular workholding device

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Fig. 8

Determining the optimum numbers of pulses with two different lenses

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Fig. 9

The array of holes used to evaluate uncertainty in correlating SCSs on the sample two sides

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Fig. 10

The test sample designed to compare one- and two-side drilling methods

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Fig. 11

Holes' cross sections generated using the XCT system: (a) section G-G of holes' array B produced by two-side drilling with 2500 pulses, (b) section H-H of holes' array B produced by two-side drilling with different pulse numbers, and (c) section I-I of holes' array A produced by one-side drilling with different pulse numbers

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Fig. 12

Morphology analysis of holes produced employing one-side percussion drilling with different pulse numbers

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Fig. 13

Morphology analysis of holes produced employing two-side percussion drilling with different pulse numbers

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Fig. 14

Holes' cross sections generated using the XCT system: (a) section J-J of 60 μm square holes (array D) produced by two-side drilling, (b) section K-K of square and circular holes with different dimensions (array D) produced by two-side drilling, and (c) section L-L of square and circular holes with different dimensions (array C) produced by one-side drilling

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Fig. 15

Morphology analysis of circular holes (arrays C and D) produced employing one- and two-side drilling

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Fig. 16

Morphology analysis of square holes (arrays C and D) produced employing one- and two-side drilling

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Fig. 17

Roundness and tapering angles of 75 μm circular holes (arrays C and D) produced by one- and two-side drilling

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