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Multiscale Stereolithography Using Shaped Beams

[+] Author and Article Information
Huachao Mao

Daniel J. Epstein Department of Industrial and
Systems Engineering,
University of Southern California,
3715 McClintock Avenue,
Los Angeles, CA 90089
e-mail: huachaom@usc.edu

Yuen-Shan Leung

Daniel J. Epstein Department of Industrial and
Systems Engineering,
University of Southern California,
3715 McClintock Avenue,
Los Angeles, CA 90089
e-mail: debbieleung22@gmail.com

Yuanrui Li

Ming Hsieh Department of Electrical Engineering,
University of Southern California,
3740 McClintock Avenue,
Los Angeles, CA 90089
e-mail: yuanruil@usc.edu

Pan Hu, Wei Wu

Ming Hsieh Department of Electrical Engineering,
University of Southern California,
3740 McClintock Avenue,
Los Angeles, CA 90089
e-mail: panhu@usc.edu

Yong Chen

Mem. ASME
Daniel J. Epstein Department of Industrial and
Systems Engineering,
University of Southern California,
3715 McClintock Avenue,
Los Angeles, CA 90089
e-mail: yongchen@usc.edu

1Corresponding author.

Contributed by the Manufacturing Engineering Division of ASME for publication in the JOURNAL OF MICRO- AND NANO-MANUFACTURING. Manuscript received June 13, 2017; final manuscript received August 28, 2017; published online September 27, 2017. Assoc. Editor: Yayue Pan.

J. Micro Nano-Manuf 5(4), 040905 (Sep 27, 2017) (10 pages) Paper No: JMNM-17-1028; doi: 10.1115/1.4037832 History: Received June 13, 2017; Revised August 28, 2017

Current stereolithography (SL) can fabricate three-dimensional (3D) objects in a single-scale level, e.g., printing macroscale or microscale objects. However, it is difficult for the SL printers to fabricate a 3D macroscale object with microscale features. In the paper, a novel SL-based multiscale fabrication method is presented to address such a problem. The developed SL process can fabricate multiscale features by dynamically changing the shape and size of a laser beam. Different shaped beams are realized by switching apertures with different micropatterns. The laser beam without using micropatterns is used to fabricate macroscale features, while the shaped laser beams based on small apertures are used to fabricate micropatterned features. Accordingly, a tool path planning method for the multiscale fabrication process is presented to build macroscale and microscale features using different layer thicknesses, laser exposure time, and scanning paths. Compared with the conventional SL process using a fixed laser beam size, our process can manufacture multiscale features in a 3D object with fast fabrication speed and good surface quality.

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Figures

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Fig. 1

Shaped beam optics

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Fig. 2

Multiple apertures for different micropatterns. Top row: different apertures patterns and bottom row: the fabricated patterns and the size of each fabricated dot.

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Fig. 3

A schematic diagram of multiscale fabrication process. The multiscales in the XY plane are achieved by the large and small beams, and the multiscales along the Z-axis are realized by the large and small layer thickness.

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Fig. 4

CAD model of the prototype system

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Fig. 5

Comparison between single-scale fabrication and multiscale fabrication: (a) the fabrication results based on multiscale layer thicknesses −20 μm was used for the boundary and 100 μm was used for the inner portion, and (b) a close-up to show a high Z resolution, and (c) a close-up to show a high XY resolution, and (d)–(f) the fabrication results using a single layer thickness of 100 μm. The fabrication time based on the two methods is approximately the same. The scale bars in (a) and (d) are 1 mm, and the rest scale bars are 0.2 mm.

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Fig. 6

Multiscale tool paths for example layers

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Fig. 7

(Left) Failure may occur since only boundary region is supporting the other m − 1 small layers. (Right) A buffer radius β is added to reduce the common region E.

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Fig. 8

Laser beam after a pinhole aperture

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Fig. 9

The schematic diagram of resin recoating for small layers' boundaries

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Fig. 10

Time consumption for five small layers between multiscale fabrication and single-scale fabrication

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Fig. 11

Fabrication of the porous structure: (a) beam shape used in this test case, (b) the fabricated pattern, (c) the input cad model, (d) and (e) shows the printed part, and (f) shows the large compression ratio

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Fig. 12

The fabricated complex parts with a quarter coin. The left part is a pyramid with the large sloped surface; the middle one is a turbine with shell-like blades; and the right one is a “Lion” model with delicate hairs.

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Fig. 13

A complex test case with multiscale features (for online version, the image color changes using different microscopes)

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