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Research Papers

Fast Fabrication of Superhydrophobic Titanium Alloy as Antibacterial Surface Using Nanosecond Laser Texturing

[+] Author and Article Information
Deepak Patil

Department of Mechanical Engineering,
Indian Institute of Technology Delhi,
New Delhi 110016, India
e-mail: deepakpatil3030@gmail.com

S. Aravindan

Department of Mechanical Engineering,
Indian Institute of Technology Delhi,
New Delhi 110016, India
e-mail: aravindan@mech.iitd.ac.in

Mishi Kaushal Wasson

Kusuma School of Biological Sciences,
Indian Institute of Technology Delhi,
New Delhi 110016, India
e-mail: mishi.wasson@gmail.com

Vivekanandan P.

Kusuma School of Biological Sciences,
Indian Institute of Technology Delhi,
New Delhi 110016, India
e-mail: vperumal@bioschool.iitd.ac.in

P. V. Rao

Department of Mechanical Engineering,
Indian Institute of Technology Delhi,
New Delhi 110016, India
e-mail: pvrao@mech.iitd.ernet.in

1Corresponding author.

Contributed by the Manufacturing Engineering Division of ASME for publication in the JOURNAL OF MICRO- AND NANO-MANUFACTURING. Manuscript received April 29, 2017; final manuscript received September 15, 2017; published online December 14, 2017. Editor: Jian Cao.

J. Micro Nano-Manuf 6(1), 011002 (Dec 14, 2017) (8 pages) Paper No: JMNM-17-1019; doi: 10.1115/1.4038093 History: Received April 29, 2017; Revised September 15, 2017

The method for fast fabrication of superhydrophobic surfaces was proposed to resist the formation of biofilm of Escherichia coli (E. coli) and Staphylococcus aureus (S. aureus) for orthopedic and dental implants. Laser beam machining with nanosecond pulsed laser (Nd:YAG) was used to fabricate pit structure on Grade-5 Ti–6Al–4V alloy followed by annealing (at 300 °C with different time scales) in order to reduce the transition time from hydrophilic to superhydrophobic surface generation. Field emission scanning electron microscopy (FE-SEM) and X-ray diffraction (XRD) techniques were used to characterize the textured samples. The surface wettability of plain and textured samples was measured by the sessile drop method using goniometer. The biofilm formation was qualitatively and quantitatively evaluated by FE-SEM and crystal violet binding assay, respectively. The biofilm formation was observed on plain (hydrophilic) surface for both the types of bacteria, whereas significantly less biofilm formation was observed on the laser textured (superhydrophobic) surfaces. The proposed method helps in reducing the risk of infection associated with implants without using cytotoxic bactericidal agents.

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Figures

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Fig. 1

SEM images of (a) Ti–6Al–4V plain surface, (b) laser-induced pit structures of 40μm, (c) 60 μm, and (d) 80 μm spacing on Ti–6Al–4V

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Fig. 2

WDCA versus pits spacing

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Fig. 3

Images of WDCA after annealing for 30 min (a)–(c), 60 min (d)–(f), 90 min (g)–(i), and 120 min (j)–(l) on 40 μm, 60 μm, and 80 μm samples

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Fig. 4

Graphical representation of variation of WDCA with annealing time

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Fig. 5

XRD analysis of (a) plain and (b) annealed samples

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Fig. 6

Mechanism of generation of superhydrophobic surface after annealing

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Fig. 7

Representative SEM images of E. coli tested on (a) plain Ti–6Al–4V, (b) 40 μm, (c) 60 μm, and (d) 80 μm samples

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Fig. 8

Representative SEM images of S. aureus tested on (a) plain Ti–6Al–4V, (b) 40 μm, (c) 60 μm, and (d) 80μm samples

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Fig. 9

OD (OD600 nm) of resolubilized crystal violet dye collected from cultured samples

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