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Research Papers

A Long Wavelength Model for Manufacturing of Continuous Metal Microwires by Thermal Fiber Drawing From a Preform

[+] Author and Article Information
Jingzhou Zhao

Department of Mechanical and
Aerospace Engineering,
University of California, Los Angeles,
404 Westwood Plaza,
Los Angeles, CA 90095;
Department of Mechanical Engineering,
Western New England University,
1215 Wilbraham Road,
Springfield, MA 01119
e-mails: Jingzhou.zhao@ucla.edu;
Jingzhou.zhao@wne.edu

Xiaochun Li

Department of Mechanical and
Aerospace Engineering,
University of California, Los Angeles,
404 Westwood Plaza,
Los Angeles, CA 90095
e-mail: xcli@seas.ucla.edu

1Corresponding author.

Contributed by the Manufacturing Engineering Division of ASME for publication in the JOURNAL OF MICRO- AND NANO-MANUFACTURING. Manuscript received March 25, 2017; final manuscript received November 1, 2017; published online December 14, 2017. Assoc. Editor: Takashi Matsumura.

J. Micro Nano-Manuf 6(1), 011003 (Dec 14, 2017) (9 pages) Paper No: JMNM-17-1015; doi: 10.1115/1.4038433 History: Received March 25, 2017; Revised November 01, 2017

Thermal drawing from a preform recently emerges as a scalable manufacturing method for the high volume production of continuous metal microwires for numerous applications. However, no model can yet satisfactorily provide effective understanding of core diameter and continuity from process parameters and material properties during thermal drawing. In this paper, a long wavelength model is derived to describe the dynamics of a molten metal micro-jet entrained within an immiscible, viscous, nonlinear free surface extensional flow. The model requires numerical data (e.g., drawing force and cladding profile) be measured in real time. Examination of the boundary conditions reveals that the diameter control mechanism is essentially volume conservation. The flow rate of molten metal is controlled upstream while the flow velocity is controlled downstream realized by solidification of the molten metal. The dynamics of the molten metal jet are found to be dominated by interfacial tension, stress in the cladding, and pressure in the molten metal. Taylor's conical fluid interface solution (Taylor, 1966, “Conical Free Surfaces and Fluid Interfaces,” Applied Mechanics, Springer, Berlin, pp. 790–796.) is found to be a special case of this model. A dimensionless capillary number Ca=2Fa/γA(0) is suggested to be used as the indicator for the transition from continuous mode (i.e., viscous stress dominating) to dripping mode (i.e., interfacial tension dominating). Experimental results showed the existence of a critical capillary number Cacr, above which continuous metal microwires can be produced, providing the first ever quantitative predictor of the core continuity during preform drawing of metal microwires.

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Figures

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Fig. 2

Image of the neck-down region (a) and the schematic (b) corresponding to an axisymmetric free surface extensional flow in the cladding entraining an immiscible molten metal from a nozzle (or melt front) located at z=0. The entrained molten metal core has radius R(z,t). Downstream at z=L, the metal solidifies with diameter R(L,t).

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Fig. 3

Cross-sectional images of the metal core fibers obtained from process parameters given in Table 2

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Fig. 4

Experimental result supporting the proposed diameter control mechanism

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Fig. 1

Schematic and process parameters of metal core fiber drawing from a preform

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Fig. 5

Measured and analytical cladding profile

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Fig. 10

Capillary number versus aspect ratio

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Fig. 6

Measured and calculated core profile

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Fig. 11

Continuous mode (a) and dripping mode (b)

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Fig. 12

An axisymmetric free surface extensional flow (−(r/2)(dU(z)/dz),0,U(z)) in the cladding entrains an immiscible molten metal from a nozzle (or melt front) located at z=0. The entrained molten metal core has radius R(z,t). Downstream at z=L, the metal solidifies with diameter R(L,t).

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Fig. 7

Schematic of the procedure to obtain a Sn sessile drop surrounded by PES

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Fig. 8

Drop height versus drop volume

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Fig. 9

A solidified Sn droplet after removing the PES for contact angle measurements

Tables

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