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research-article

A COMPREHENSIVE STUDY OF THE SINTERING OF COPPER NANOPARTICLES USING FEMTOSECOND, NANOSECOND AND CONTINUOUS WAVE LASERS

[+] Author and Article Information
Nilabh K Roy

The University of Texas at Austin, 204 E. Dean Keeton, ETC 4.164, Austin, TX 78712
nilabh.roy@utexas.edu

Obehi G Dibua

The University of Texas at Austin, 204 E. Dean Keeton, ETC 4.164, Austin, TX 78712
ogodibua@utexas.edu

William Jou

The University of Texas at Austin, Austin, TX 78712
williamjou@utexas.edu

Feng He

The University of Texas at Austin, 204 E. Dean Keeton, ETC 7.150, Austin, TX 78712
feng.he@utexas.edu

Jihoon Jeong

The University of Texas at Austin, 204 E. Dean Keeton, ETC 7.150, Austin, TX 78712
jihoonjeong@utexas.edu

Yaguo Wang

The University of Texas at Austin, 204 E. Dean Keeton, ETC 7.150, Austin, Texas- 78712, USA
yaguo.wang@austin.utexas.edu

Michael Cullinan

The University of Texas at Austin, 204 E. Dean Keeton, ETC 4.154, Austin, TX 78712
michael.cullinan@austin.utexas.edu

1Corresponding author.

ASME doi:10.1115/1.4038455 History: Received June 15, 2017; Revised September 06, 2017

Abstract

A high electrical and thermal conductivity coupled with low costs make copper (Cu) an enticing alternative to aluminum for fabrication of interconnects in packaging applications. To tap into the benefits of the ever-reducing size of transistors, it is required to increase the input/output (I/O) pin count on electronic chips and thus minimize the size of chip to board interconnects. Laser sintering of Cu nanoparticle (NP) inks can serve as a promising process for developing these micron sized, 3D interconnect structures. However, the exact processing windows for Cu NP sintering are not well known. Therefore, this paper presents an extensive experimental investigation of the sintering processing window with different lasers including femtosecond (fs), nanosecond (ns) and continuous-wave (CW) lasers. The dependence of the processing window on Cu layer thicknesses and laser exposure durations has also been investigated. A simplified model to estimate optimum laser sintering windows for Cu NPs using pulsed lasers is presented and the predicted estimates are compared against the experimental results. Given the simplicity of the model, it is shown to provide good estimates for fluence required for the onset of sintering and the processing window for good sintering of Cu NPs.

Copyright (c) 2017 by ASME
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