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Research Papers

Laser Surface Engineering of Hierarchy Hydroxyapatite Aerogel for Bone Tissue Engineering

[+] Author and Article Information
Pedram Parandoush

Department of Industrial and
System Engineering,
Kansas State University,
2061 Rathbone Hall, 66506,
1701B Platt Street,
Manhattan, KS 66502
e-mail: pedramp@ksu.edu

Hanxiong Fan

Department of Industrial and
System Engineering,
Kansas State University,
2061 Rathbone Hall, 66506,
1701B Platt Street,
Manhattan, KS 66502
e-mail: Hanxiong@ksu.edu

Xiaolei Song

Department of Industrial and
System Engineering,
Kansas State University,
2061 Rathbone Hall, 66506,
1701B Platt Street,
Manhattan, KS 66502
e-mail: xiaoleisong@ksu.edu

Dong Lin

Department of Industrial and
System Engineering,
Kansas State University,
2061 Rathbone Hall, 66506,
1701B Platt Street,
Manhattan, KS 66502
e-mail: Dongl@ksu.edu

Contributed by the Manufacturing Engineering Division of ASME for publication in the JOURNAL OF MICRO- AND NANO-MANUFACTURING. Manuscript received September 12, 2017; final manuscript received November 28, 2017; published online December 26, 2017. Editor: Jian Cao.

J. Micro Nano-Manuf 6(1), 011007 (Dec 26, 2017) (6 pages) Paper No: JMNM-17-1052; doi: 10.1115/1.4038669 History: Received September 12, 2017; Revised November 28, 2017

Bioceramics with porous microstructure has attracted intense attention in tissue engineering due to tissue growth facilitation in the human body. In the present work, a novel manufacturing process for producing hydroxyapatite (HA) aerogels with a high density shell inspired by human bone microstructure is proposed for bone tissue engineering applications. This method combines laser processing and traditional freeze casting, in which HA aerogel is prepared by freeze casting and aqueous suspension prior to laser processing of the aerogel surface with a focused CO2 laser beam that forms a dense layer on top of the porous microstructure. Using the proposed method, HA aerogel with dense shell was successfully prepared with a microstructure similar to human bone. The effect of laser process parameters on the surface, cross-sectional morphology and microstructure was investigated in order to obtain optimum parameters and has a better understanding of the process. Low laser energy resulted in a fragile thin surface with defects and cracks due to the thermal stress induced by the laser processing. However, increasing the laser power generated a thicker dense layer on the surface, free of defects. The range of 40–45 W laser power, 5 mm/s scanning speed, spot size of 1 mm, and 50% overlap in laser scanning the surface yielded the best surface morphology and microstructure in our experiments.

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Copyright © 2018 by ASME
Topics: Lasers , Bone , Shells , Casting
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Figures

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Fig. 1

Schematic of the proposed manufacturing method for HA aerogel with dense shell

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Fig. 2

SEM micrographs of freeze casted HA with unidirectional microstructure oriented in the freezing direction: (a) side view and (b) top view

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Fig. 3

Surface and cross-sectional morphology after laser processing: (a) comparison of HA's surface before and after laser processing, (b) fracture surface of HA that shows the cross section of dense shell and porous core microstructure, and (c) high magnification of the cross section that shows the border of dense shell and porous microstructure

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Fig. 4

Surface morphology of laser processed HA aerogel with 5 mm/s scanning speed and various power settings namely (a) 35 W, (b) 40 W, (c) 45 W, and (d) 50 W

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Fig. 5

SEM micrographs of laser processed HA showing the cross-sectional morphology and the depth of the dense shell on top of the porous microstructure using 5 mm/s scanning speed and (a) 35 W, (b) 40 W, (c) 45 W, and (d) 50 W laser power

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Fig. 6

Surface morphology of laser processed HA aerogel with 50 W laser power and various scanning speeds namely (a) 5 mm/s, (b) 10 mm/s, and (c) 15 mm/s

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Fig. 7

SEM micrographs of laser processed HA showing the cross-sectional morphology and the depth of the dense shell on top of the porous microstructure using 50 W laser speed and (a) 5 mm/s, (b) 10 mm/s, and (c) 15 mm/s scanning speeds

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