Research Papers

Nanofinishing of Microslots on Surgical Stainless Steel by Abrasive Flow Finishing Process: Experimentation and Modeling

[+] Author and Article Information
Sachin Singh, Deepu Kumar, Mamilla Ravi Sankar

Department of Mechanical Engineering,
Indian Institute of Technology,
Guwahati 781039, India

Kamlakar Rajurkar

Department of Mechanical and
Materials Engineering,
University of Nebraska-Lincoln,
Lincoln, NE 68588-0526

Contributed by the Manufacturing Engineering Division of ASME for publication in the JOURNAL OF MICRO-AND NANO-MANUFACTURING. Manuscript received August 14, 2017; final manuscript received January 31, 2018; published online March 20, 2018. Assoc. Editor: Stefan Dimov.

J. Micro Nano-Manuf 6(2), 021005 (Mar 20, 2018) (12 pages) Paper No: JMNM-17-1045; doi: 10.1115/1.4039295 History: Received August 14, 2017; Revised January 31, 2018

Miniaturization of components is one of the major demands of the today's technological advancement. Microslots are one of the widely used microfeature found in various industries such as automobile, aerospace, fuel cells and medical. Surface roughness of the microslots plays critical role in high precision applications such as medical field (e.g., drug eluting stent and microfilters). In this paper, abrasive flow finishing (AFF) process is used for finishing of the microslots (width 450 μm) on surgical stainless steel workpiece that are fabricated by electrical discharge micromachining (EDμM). AFF medium is developed in-house and used for performing microslots finishing experiments. Developed medium not only helps in the removal of hard recast layer from the workpiece surfaces but also provides nano surface roughness. Parametric study of microslots finishing by AFF process is carried out with the help of central composite rotatable design (CCRD) method. The initial surface roughness on the microslots wall is in the range of 3.50 ± 0.10 μm. After AFF, the surface roughness is reduced to 192 nm with a 94.56% improvement in the surface roughness. To understand physics of the AFF process, three-dimensional (3D) finite element (FE) viscoelastic model of the AFF process is developed. Later, a surface roughness simulation model is also proposed to predict the final surface roughness after the AFF process. Simulated results are in good agreement with the experimental results.

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Fig. 1

Nanofinishing of microslots using AFF medium

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Fig. 2

(a) Overview of AFF setup (medium flow direction during lower AFF stroke) and (b) surgical stainless steel workpiece with microslots

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Fig. 3

Overview of the preparation methodology and rheological characterization of AFF medium: (a) various medium ingredients, (b) two-roll mill, and (c) parallel plate rheometer (Anton Paar-MCR-101 series)

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Fig. 4

Three-dimensional meshed geometry of the viscoelastic medium domain during AFF of microslots

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Fig. 5

Velocity streamlines of the medium passing through the microslots during the AFF process at different extrusion pressure: (a) 3.70 MPa and (b) 5.30 MPa (wt % of abrasive particles = 45%)

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Fig. 6

(a) Schematic view showing the dimensions of medium fraction used during the surface roughness simulation, (b) surface roughness profile (Ra = 3.45 μm), and (c) schematic view of 2D interaction of an abrasive particle with the surface roughness profile during simulation of AFF process

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Fig. 7

Schematic view showing shearing of workpiece surface roughness peaks during AFF process: (a) indentation of abrasive particle at three indentation depths and (b) updated roughness peaks after shearing by the abrasive particles

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Fig. 8

Variation of percentage change in surface roughness (% ΔRa and % ΔRas) with respect to extrusion pressure for different number of AFF cycles (wt % of abrasives = 45%) (E denotes experiments and S denotes simulation)

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Fig. 9

Variation of percentage change in surface roughness (% ΔRa and % ΔRas) with respect to the number of AFF cycles for different wt % of abrasives particles (extrusion pressure = 4.5 MPa) (E denotes experiments and S denotes simulation)

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Fig. 10

Effect of shear rate on shear viscosity (logarithmic scale on both X and Y axis)

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Fig. 11

Variation of percentage change in surface roughness (% ΔRa and % ΔRas) with respect to wt % of abrasives particles for different extrusion pressure (number of AFF cycles = 25) (E denotes experiments and S denotes simulation)

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Fig. 12

Workpiece surface topography and corresponding 2D surface roughness profile: (a) initial workpiece surface (Ra = 3.49 μm) and (b) finished workpiece surface (Ra = 0.19 μm) (30 cycles, 5 MPa, 50 wt % abrasives particles)

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Fig. 13

Workpiece surface topography and its corresponding energy-dispersive X-ray spectroscopy: (a) initial workpiece surface and (b) finished workpiece surface (30 cycles, 5 MPa, 50 wt % abrasives particles)

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Fig. 14

Workpiece microslot surface: (a) initial workpiece surface that does not reflect the letters μAFF and (b) final workpiece surface after finishing showing μAFF



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