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Research Papers

Response of High-Pressure Micro Water Jets to Static and Dynamic Nonuniform Electric Fields

[+] Author and Article Information
Yi Shi, Jian Cao, Kornel F. Ehmann

Department of Mechanical Engineering,
Northwestern University,
Evanston, IL 60208

Contributed by the Manufacturing Engineering Division of ASME for publication in the JOURNAL OF MICRO-AND NANO-MANUFACTURING. Manuscript received October 14, 2017; final manuscript received February 26, 2018; published online March 20, 2018. Editor: Nicholas Fang.

J. Micro Nano-Manuf 6(2), 021006 (Mar 20, 2018) (13 pages) Paper No: JMNM-17-1062; doi: 10.1115/1.4039507 History: Received October 14, 2017; Revised February 26, 2018

The manipulation of the trajectory of high-pressure micro water jets has the potential to greatly improve the accuracy of water jet related manufacturing processes. An experimental study was conducted to understand the basic static and dynamic responses of high-pressure micro water jet systems in the presence of nonuniform electric fields. A single electrode was employed to create a nonuniform electric field to deflect a high-pressure micro water jet toward the electrode by the dielectrophoretic force generated. The water jet's motions were precisely recorded by a high-speed camera with a 20× magnification and the videos postprocessed by a LabVIEW image processing program to acquire the deflections. The experiments revealed the fundamental relationships between three experimental parameters, i.e., voltage, pressure, and the distance between the water jet and the electrode and the deflection of the water jet in both nonuniform static and dynamic electric fields. In the latter case, electric signals at different frequencies were employed to experimentally investigate the jet's dynamic response, such as response time, frequency, and the stability of the water jet's motion. A first-order system model was proposed to approximate the jet's response to dynamic input signals. The work can serve as the basis for the development of closed-loop control systems for manipulating the trajectory of high-pressure micro water jets.

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Figures

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Fig. 1

Single electrode configuration and corresponding definition of the governing parameters

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Fig. 2

Schematic illustration of the experimental apparatus

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Fig. 3

(a) Experimental setup with all the components and (b) partial magnification of the setup as marked by the square on the left

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Fig. 4

Water jet deflection as the voltage increases (D is the total water jet deflection)

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Fig. 5

Water jet deflection (D) versus experimental parameters: (a) water jet deflection (D) versus distance (d), (b) water jet deflection (D) versus pressure (P), and (c) water jet deflection (D) versus voltage (V)

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Fig. 6

Linear regression for obtaining the unknown constant in the empirical equation

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Fig. 7

Water jet deflection versus time for four types of waveforms at 10 Hz (d = 300 μm, P = 17.24 MPa)

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Fig. 8

Prediction model for water jet deflection versus time for four types of waveforms at 10 Hz (d = 300 μm, P = 17.24 MPa)

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Fig. 9

Prediction model for water jet deflection versus time for four types of waveforms at 100 Hz (d = 300 μm, P = 17.24 MPa)

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Fig. 10

Prediction model for water jet deflection versus time for four types of waveforms at 500 Hz (d = 300 μm, P = 17.24 MPa)

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Fig. 11

Dynamic response to 500 Hz square signal under different water pressure: (a) time constant versus water pressure with prediction mode, (b) water jet deflection versus time fitted with simulated response for simple first-order system under 17.24 MPa, (c) 34.47 MPa, (d) 68.95 MPa, (e) 103.42 MPa, and (f) 137.90 MP

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Fig. 12

Water jet deflection versus time for 1 kHz and 2 kHz square signals at P = 17.24 MPa

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