Research Papers

A Quantification of Jet Speed and Nanofiber Deposition Rate in Near-Field Electrospinning Through Novel Image Processing

[+] Author and Article Information
Jonghyun Kim

Department of Mechanical Engineering,
University of Utah,
Salt Lake City, UT 84112
e-mail: jonghyun.kim@utah.edu

Dongwoon Shin

Department of Mechanical Engineering,
University of Utah,
Salt Lake City, UT 84112
e-mail: shindw82@gmail.com

Kyu-Bum Han

Nanobiotechnology Laboratory,
Department of Material Science and Engineering,
University of Utah,
Salt Lake City, UT 84112
e-mail: k.han@utah.edu

Jiyoung Chang

Department of Mechanical Engineering,
University of Utah,
Salt Lake City, UT 84112
e-mail: jy.chang@utah.edu

1Corresponding author.

Contributed by the Manufacturing Engineering Division of ASME for publication in the JOURNAL OF MICRO-AND NANO-MANUFACTURING. Manuscript received February 8, 2018; final manuscript received March 23, 2018; published online May 3, 2018. Editor: Nicholas Fang.

J. Micro Nano-Manuf 6(3), 031002 (May 03, 2018) (6 pages) Paper No: JMNM-18-1005; doi: 10.1115/1.4039794 History: Received February 08, 2018; Revised March 23, 2018

Electrospinning, one of the most effective ways of producing nanofibers, has been applied in as many fields throughout its long history. Starting with far-field electrospinning (FFES) and advancing to the near-field, the application area has continued to expand, but lack of understanding of the exact jet speed and fiber deposition rate is a major obstacle to entry into precision micro- to nano-scale manufacturing. In this paper, we, for the first time, analyze and predict the jet velocity and deposition rate in near-field electrospinning (NFES) through novel image analysis process. Especially, analog image is converted into a digital image, and then, the area occupied by the deposited fiber is converted into a velocity, through which the accuracy of the proposed method is proved to be comparable to direct jet speed measurement. Finally, we verified the proposed method can be applied to various process conditions without performing delicate experiments. This research not only will broaden the understanding of jet speed and fiber deposition rate in NFES but also will be applicable to various areas including patterning of the sensor, a uniform arrangement of nanofibers, energy harvester, reinforcing of composite, and reproducing of artificial tissue.

Copyright © 2018 by ASME
Your Session has timed out. Please sign back in to continue.


Reneker, D. H. , and Yarin, A. L. , 2008, “ Electrospinning Jets and Polymer Nanofibers,” Polym. (Guildf)., 49(10), pp. 2387–2425. [CrossRef]
Deitzel, J. M. , Kleinmeyer, J. K. , Hirvonen, N. C. , and Beck Tan, N. C. , 2001, “ Controlled Deposition of Electrospun Poly(Ethylene Oxide) Fibers,” Polymer, 42(19), pp. 8163–8170. [CrossRef]
Subbiah, T. , Bhat, G. S. , Tock, R. W. , Parameswaran, S. , and Ramkumar, S. S. , 2005, “ Electrospinning of Nanofibers,” J. Appl. Polym. Sci, 96(2), pp. 557–569. [CrossRef]
Zhang, S. , Liu, H. , Yin, X. , Li, Z. , Yu, J. , and Ding, B. , 2017, “ Tailoring Mechanically Robust Poly(m-Phenylene Isophthalamide) Nanofiber/Nets for Ultrathin High-Efficiency Air Filter,” Sci. Rep., 7, p. 40550. [CrossRef] [PubMed]
Qin, X.-H. , and Wang, S.-Y. , 2006, “ Filtration Properties of Electrospinning Nanofibers,” J. Appl. Polym. Sci., 102(2), pp. 1285–1290. [CrossRef]
Yun, K. M. , Hogan, C. J. , Matsubayashi, Y. , Kawabe, M. , Iskandar, F. , and Okuyama, K. , 2007, “ Nanoparticle Filtration by Electrospun Polymer Fibers,” Chem. Eng. Sci., 62(17), pp. 4751–4759. [CrossRef]
Barhate, R. S. , and Ramakrishna, S. , 2007, “ Nanofibrous Filtering Media: Filtration Problems and Solutions From Tiny Materials,” J. Membr. Sci., 296(1–2), pp. 1–8.
Huang, C.-Y. , Hu, K.-H. , and Wei, Z.-H. , 2016, “ Comparison of Cell Behavior on PVA/PVA-Gelatin Electrospun Nanofibers With Random and Aligned Configuration,” Sci. Rep., 6(1), p. 37960. [CrossRef] [PubMed]
Wang, X. , Ding, B. , and Li, B. , 2013, “ Biomimetic Electrospun Nanofibrous Structures for Tissue Engineering,” Mater. Today, 16(6), pp. 229–241. [CrossRef]
Bridge, J. C. , Aylott, J. W. , Brightling, C. E. , Ghaemmaghami, A. M. , Knox, A. J. , Lewis, M. P. , Rose, F. R. A. J. , and Morris, G. E. , 2015, “ Adapting the Electrospinning Process to Provide Three Unique Environments for a Tri-Layered In Vitro Model of the Airway Wall,” J. Vis. Exp., (101), p. e52986.
Har-el, Y. , Gerstenhaber, J. A. , Brodsky, R. , Huneke, R. B. , and Lelkes, P. I. , 2014, “ Electrospun Soy Protein Scaffolds as Wound Dressings: Enhanced Reepithelialization in a Porcine Model of Wound Healing,” Wound Med., 5(5), pp. 9–15. [CrossRef]
Chen, S. , Liu, B. , Carlson, M. A. , Gombart, A. F. , Reilly, D. A. , and Xie, J. , 2017, “ Recent Advances in Electrospun Nanofibers for Wound Healing,” Nanomedicine, 12(11), pp. 1335–1352. [CrossRef] [PubMed]
Sill, T. J. , and von Recum, H. A. , 2008, “ Electrospinning: Applications in Drug Delivery and Tissue Engineering,” Biomaterials, 29(13), pp. 1989–2006. [CrossRef] [PubMed]
Lee, S. , and Obendorf, S. K. , 2007, “ Use of Electrospun Nanofiber Web for Protective Textile Materials as Barriers to Liquid Penetration,” Text. Res. J., 77(9), pp. 696–702. [CrossRef]
Garg, K. , and Bowlin, G. L. , 2011, “ Electrospinning Jets and Nanofibrous Structures,” Biomicrofluidics, 5(1), p. 13403. [CrossRef] [PubMed]
Reneker, D. , Kataphinan, W. , Theron, A. , Zussman, E. , and Yarin, A. , 2002, “ Nanofiber Garlands of Polycaprolactone by Electrospinning,” Polymer, 43(25), pp. 6785–6794. [CrossRef]
Bellan, L. M. , Craighead, H. G. , and Hinestroza, J. P. , 2007, “ Direct Measurement of Fluid Velocity in an Electrospinning Jet Using Particle Image Velocimetry,” J. Appl. Phys., 102(9), p. 94308. [CrossRef]
Chang, J. , Dommer, M. , Chang, C. , and Lin, L. , 2012, “ Piezoelectric Nanofibers for Energy Scavenging Applications,” Nano Energy, 1(3), pp. 356–371. [CrossRef]
Molnar, K. , 2012, “ Determination of Tensile Strength of Electrospun Single Nanofibers Through Modeling Tensile Behavior of the Nanofibrous Mat,” Compos. Part B Eng., 43(1), pp. 15–21. [CrossRef]
Deitzel, J. M. , 2001, “ The Effect of Processing Variables on the Morphology of Electrospun Nanofibers and Textiles,” Polymer, 42(1), pp. 261–272. [CrossRef]
Ramakrishna, S. , Fujihara, K. , Teo, W.-E. , Lim, T.-C. , and Ma, Z. , 2005, An Introduction to Electrospinning and Nanofibers, World Scientific, Singapore. [CrossRef]
Beachley, V. , and Wen, X. , 2009, “ Effect of Electrospinning Parameters on the Nanofiber Diameter and Length,” Mater. Sci. Eng. C. Mater. Biol. Appl., 29(3), pp. 663–668. [CrossRef] [PubMed]
Chhaya, S. , Khera, S. , and Kumar, P. , 2015, “ Basic Geometric Shape and Primary Colour Detection Using Image Processing on Matlab,” IJRET Int. J., 4(5), pp. 505–509. http://esatjournals.net/ijret/2015v04/i05/IJRET20150405094.pdf
Indera Putera, S. , and Ibrahim, Z. , 2010, “ Printed Circuit Board Defect Detection Using Mathematical Morphology and MATLAB Image Processing Tools,” IEEE Second International Conference on Education Technology and Computer (ICETC), Shanghai, China, June 22–24, pp. V5-359–V5-363.


Grahic Jump Location
Fig. 1

Nanofiber patterning: (a) schematic drawing of jet speed change according to varying EF in NFES and (b) microscopic images of electrospun nanofiber patterns with increasing applied voltage

Grahic Jump Location
Fig. 2

SEM images of electrospun nanofiber: (a) coil-shaped nanofiber made by NFES on the collector substrate and (b) cross-sectional surface of fiber

Grahic Jump Location
Fig. 3

Pattern analysis process: (a) image sampling: spot patterns on the collector silicon wafer for distance guidance, (b) and (c) binarization: converting RGB to B&W image, and (d) and (f) pixel ratio extraction: BW ratio of cropped images which are made by varying EF

Grahic Jump Location
Fig. 4

Result of cross-sectional analysis: (a) cross-sectional area of the fibers with varying applied voltage, (b) cross-sectional areas during continuous NFES, (c) deformation of the cross section by increasing EFs, and (d) the ratio of the height and chord with applied voltages

Grahic Jump Location
Fig. 5

Result of quantification: (a) jet speed versus increasing applied voltage and (b) deposition rate versus applied voltage

Grahic Jump Location
Fig. 6

Verification result: (a) patterning with fixed applied voltage and the TTCD while the collector speed increases and (b) demonstration of straightening fiber by adjusting collector speed during continuous NFES with low applied voltage range




Some tools below are only available to our subscribers or users with an online account.

Related Content

Customize your page view by dragging and repositioning the boxes below.

Related Journal Articles
Related eBook Content
Topic Collections

Sorry! You do not have access to this content. For assistance or to subscribe, please contact us:

  • TELEPHONE: 1-800-843-2763 (Toll-free in the USA)
  • EMAIL: asmedigitalcollection@asme.org
Sign In