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Research Papers

Low Pressure Phase Transformations During High-Speed, High-Temperature Scratching of Silicon

[+] Author and Article Information
Chirag Alreja

Manufacturing Engineering Section,
Department of Mechanical Engineering,
Indian Institute of Technology Madras,
Chennai 600036, India

Sathyan Subbiah

Manufacturing Engineering Section,
Department of Mechanical Engineering,
Indian Institute of Technology Madras,
Chennai 600036, India
e-mail: sathyans@iitm.ac.in

Contributed by the Manufacturing Engineering Division of ASME for publication in the JOURNAL OF MICRO-AND NANO-MANUFACTURING. Manuscript received June 20, 2017; final manuscript received August 12, 2018; published online October 10, 2018. Assoc. Editor: Don A. Lucca.

J. Micro Nano-Manuf 6(4), 041001 (Oct 10, 2018) (10 pages) Paper No: JMNM-17-1039; doi: 10.1115/1.4041508 History: Received June 20, 2017; Revised August 12, 2018

Higher temperature assisted processing of silicon, such as heat-assisted diamond turning, is often being considered to improve surface integrity. At higher temperatures and under mechanical loading and unloading, caused by a moving tool, silicon deforms plastically often in association with occurrence of phase transformations. This paper investigates such phase transformations in rotational scratching of single crystal (100) p-type silicon with a conical diamond tool under various furnace-controlled temperatures ranging from room temperature (RT) to 500 °C and at scratching speeds comparable to that used in the diamond turning process (1 m/s). Phase transformation study, using Raman spectroscopy, at various crystal orientations, shows differences in phases formed at various temperatures when compared to that reported in indentation. The tendency to form phases is compared between scratched and diamond turned surfaces at RT, and also with that reported at low scratching speeds in the literature. Analytical indenting-based pressure calculations show that at higher temperatures, phase transformations can happen in silicon at significantly lower pressures. Analysis of depths of the scratched groove indicates that at temperatures beyond a certain threshold, plastic deformation and significant elastic recovery may be causing shallow grooves. Abrasive wear coefficients are thus seen to decrease with the increase in temperatures. This study is expected to help tune heat-assisted diamond turning conditions to improve surface formation.

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Figures

Grahic Jump Location
Fig. 1

(a) Schematic of the scratching setup inside a furnace and (b) photograph of the actual setup inside the furnace

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Fig. 2

Raman spectra at various temperatures showing different phases of silicon detected (a) along [110] crystal directions and (b) along [−110] crystal directions

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Fig. 3

Raman spectra showing various cystalline phases (Si-I, Si-III, Si-XII, Si-IV, and Si-XIII) and amorphous silicon phases observed at RT along [−110], [110], [100], and [010] crystal directions

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Fig. 4

Crystallographic directions variation along the scratch circumference. At point “A,” for example, the indenter instantaneously scratches along the tangential direction, which is [010].

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Fig. 5

Raman spectra at various temperatures showing different phases of silicon detected (a) along [100] crystal direction and (b) along [010] crystal direction

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Fig. 6

Similarity of the Raman spectra at 500 °C along different crystal directions

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Fig. 7

Optical micrographs of scratch marks at RT, 300 °C, 400 °C, and 500 °C along [110] crystal directions

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Fig. 8

Optical micrographs of scratch marks at RT, 300 °C, 400 °C, and 500 °C along [010] crystal direction

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Fig. 9

Optical micrographs of scratch marks at RT, 300 °C, 400 °C, and 500 °C along [100] crystal direction

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Fig. 10

Optical micrographs of scratch marks at RT, 300 °C, 400 °C, and 500 °C along [−110] crystal direction

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Fig. 11

Variation in groove depth with temperature, averaged across all crystallographic orientations (single sample for each temperature). Variation in data over various orientations is indicated via ±1σ error bar.

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Fig. 12

Back side of the scratched wafer showing the protrusion mark of the scratch from the front side indicative of plastic deformation

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Fig. 13

Decrease of maximum pressure with temperature required for phase transformation

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Fig. 14

The variation of coefficient K with temperature indicative of shallow depth from Archard equation

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