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Review Article

Opto-Thermophoretic Tweezers and Assembly

[+] Author and Article Information
Jingang Li

Materials Science and Engineering Program
and Department of Mechanical Engineering,
The University of Texas at Austin,
Austin, TX 78712

Linhan Lin, Yuji Inoue

Materials Science and Engineering Program and
Department of Mechanical Engineering,
The University of Texas at Austin,
Austin, TX 78712

Yuebing Zheng

Materials Science and Engineering Program and
Department of Mechanical Engineering,
The University of Texas at Austin,
Austin, TX 78712
e-mail: zheng@austin.utexas.edu

1Corresponding author.

Contributed by the Manufacturing Engineering Division of ASME for publication in the JOURNAL OF MICRO-AND NANO-MANUFACTURING. Manuscript received August 13, 2018; final manuscript received September 16, 2018; published online October 18, 2018. Editor: Nicholas Fang.

J. Micro Nano-Manuf 6(4), 040801 (Oct 18, 2018) (10 pages) Paper No: JMNM-18-1028; doi: 10.1115/1.4041615 History: Received August 13, 2018; Revised September 16, 2018

Opto-thermophoretic manipulation is an emerging field, which exploits the thermophoretic migration of particles and colloidal species under a light-controlled temperature gradient field. The entropically favorable photon–phonon conversion and widely applicable heat-directed migration make it promising for low-power manipulation of variable particles in different fluidic environments. By exploiting an optothermal substrate, versatile opto-thermophoretic manipulation of colloidal particles and biological objects can be achieved via optical heating. In this paper, we summarize the working principles, concepts, and applications of the recently developed opto-thermophoretic techniques. Opto-thermophoretic trapping, tweezing, assembly, and printing of colloidal particles and biological objects are discussed thoroughly. With their low-power operation, simple optics, and diverse functionalities, opto-thermophoretic manipulation techniques will offer great opportunities in materials science, nanomanufacturing, life sciences, colloidal science, and nanomedicine.

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Figures

Grahic Jump Location
Fig. 1

Schematic illustration for (a) thermophoresis, (b) depletion, and (c) thermoelectricity

Grahic Jump Location
Fig. 2

Thermophoretic trapping of nano-objects by dynamic temperature fields. Thermophoretic trap with (a) a closed gold structure and (b) an open gold structure with dynamic heating. (c) Trajectory points of a 200 nm PS sphere trapped within the open gold structure. (d) Calculated temperature map of the relative rise generated by a focused laser beam at the rim of the closed gold structure. (e) Calculated relative temperature rise profile (scaled) in the thermophoretic trap at a steady-state (dashed line) and by feedback controlled heating (solid line). The insets show the probability densities of finding a 200 nm polystyrene particle inside the trapping region for a steady-state temperature profile (top) and feedback controlled trapping (bottom) with the same heating power. (f) Examples of different effective trapping potential landscapes generated by different feedback rules. (a)–(c) Reproduced with permission from Braun and Cichos [68], Copyright 2013 by American Chemical Society. (d)–(f) Reproduced with permission from Braun et al. [70], Copyright 2015 by American Chemical Society.

Grahic Jump Location
Fig. 3

Entropy-driven thermophoretic tweezers for manipulation of particles and biological cells. (a) Schematic showing the working principle of the thermophoretic tweezers. (b) Parallel trapping of colloidal particles of different sizes. (c) Schematic illustration of the working mechanisms for thermophoretic trapping of biological cells. (d) Reversible distance control between a pair of yeast cells. (e) Rotation of 1D assembly of three yeast cells. (a) and (b) Reproduced with permission from Lin et al. [71], Copyright 2017 by The Royal Society of Chemistry. (c)–(e) Reproduced with permission from Lin et al. [76], Copyright 2017 by American Chemical Society.

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Fig. 4

Opto-thermoelectric nanotweezers. (a) Modification of a metal nanoparticle by CTAC adsorption. (b) Schematic view of CTAC micelles and Cl ions. (c) Schematic illustration of working principle of the tweezers. (d) Parallel trapping of six 150 nm gold nanotriangles (AuNTs). (e) In situ dark-field optical spectroscopy of trapped single metal nanoparticles along with simulated spectra. Reproduced with permission from Lin et al. [77], Copyright 2018 by Springer Nature.

Grahic Jump Location
Fig. 5

Reversible assembly of plasmonic nanoparticles. (a) Schematic of the light-directed reversible assembly of AuNTs. (b) Schematic illustration of the migration of a CTA+-modified AuNT from cold to hot region. (b) Schematic illustration of the release or redispersion of an AuNT assembly due to electrostatic repulsive interaction. (d) Optical image of 25 AuNT assemblies in a 5 × 5 square array. (e) Dark-field optical image of 17 AuNT assemblies in an Au pattern. (f) SERS spectra recorded from single AgNS assemblies for different concentrations of rhodamine 6G. Reproduced with permission from Lin et al. [78], Copyright 2016 by American Chemical Society.

Grahic Jump Location
Fig. 6

Opto-thermophoretic assembly of colloidal matter. (a) Schematic illustration of the assembly process. (b) Illustration of interparticle bonding in assembled structure. (c) Diverse types of colloidal structures built by opto-thermophoretic assembly. Reproduced with permission from Lin et al. [79], Copyright 2017 by American Association for the Advancement of Science.

Grahic Jump Location
Fig. 7

Opto-thermophoretic construction of colloidal superstructures in photocurable hydrogels. Schematic illustration of (a) trapping of a colloidal particle in a thermoelectric field and (b) immobilization of the trapped colloidal particle through UV cross-linking. (c) Opto-thermophoretic patterning of 2D close-packed superstructures. The bottom image shows the scanning electron micrograph of the corresponding superstructure after cross-linking of the hydrogel. Reproduced with permission from Peng et al. [80], Copyright 2018 by American Chemical Society.

Grahic Jump Location
Fig. 8

Opto-thermoelectric printing: (a) schematic illustration of the opto-thermoelectric trapping, (b) A bright-field optical image of printed TMI pattern of 1 μm PS spheres on the substrate. (c) Schematics, and (d) optical images of the reconfigurable printing of a sad-face pattern into a smiley-face pattern consisting of 2 μm PS spheres. Reproduced with permission from Lin et al. [81], Copyright 2017 The Royal Society of Chemistry.

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