Assembly processes for compliant non-rigid parts are widely used in manufacturing automobiles, furniture, and electronic appliances. One of the major issues in the sheet metal assembly process is to control the dimensional variation of assemblies throughout the assembly line. This paper provides an overview of the recent development in variation analysis for compliant assembly. First, the unique characteristics of compliant assemblies are discussed. Then, various approaches to variation modeling for compliant assemblies are presented for single station and multi-station assembly lines. Finally, examples are given to demonstrate the applications of compliant assembly variation models.