Abstract

Intravascular stents are small tube-like structures placed into stenotic arteries to restore blood flow perfusion to the downstream tissues. The first implanted stent was first described by Dotter [1] to treat arterial shrinkage, but the clinical routine implantation began in the 1990s to improve the limitations of balloon angioplasty, such as restenosis and abrupt closure. If compared to angioplasty, stent higher efficiency is supported by randomized trials and clinical studies. Nevertheless, problems and difficulties remain, such as migrations, collapses, cloth formation or positioning difficulties (flexibility, trackability, etc...). In other words, although intravascular stents are nowadays routinely and successfully used, research and development are still necessary, to improve the design and to avoid the long-term failure.

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