Since biological tissues are composed of cells, extracellular matrix, and interstitial fluid, freezing of biological tissues induces complex cell-fluid-matrix interaction. Quantitative understanding of this cell-fluid-matrix interaction is crucial to the design and optimization of a wide variety of cryomedicine applications. However, quantitative measurement of the interaction is extremely challenging due to the lack of reliable non-invasive measurement techniques during freezing and thawing. In the present study, a new measurement technique was developed to dynamically measure microscale tissue deformation during freezing/thawing and its feasibility was demonstrated. In this method, which is named “Cell Image Deformetry” (CID), engineered tissues with pre-labeled cells with quantum dots are imaged under a fluorescence microscope. Then, the tissue deformation is evaluated by cross-correlating cell locations between sequential microscopic images with known time intervals based on the particle image velocimetry (PIV) data processing technique.

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