The large-capacity storage cylinder set in long tube trailers is a key element for transporting high-pressure gas, and its safety in use is of concern. Among them, carbon fiber wound plastic liner is a new generation of gas cylinders with the advantages of lightweight and corrosion prevention. At present, the United States, the United Kingdom and the International Organization for Standardization have established standards on the periodic inspection of carbon fiber fully wound gas cylinders. This paper introduces the scope of application, the content of periodic inspection, and evaluation of the results of these standards based on the comparative study of Chinese TSG 23 Technical Regulations for Gas Cylinder Safety. The group standard T/GDASE 0017-2020 “Periodic Inspection and Evaluation of Carbon Fiber Fully Wound Gas Cylinders with Aluminum Lining for Automotive Compressed Hydrogen Gas” issued by Guangdong Special Equipment Industry Association and the International Organization for Standardization IS011623. And an assessment of the results of these standards and other aspects of the different requirements. On this basis, this paper points out the shortcomings of the testing methods used in the periodic inspection of large volume carbon fiber wound gas cylinders with long tube trailers in China, taking into account the demand for hydrogen storage and transportation in China and the current situation of cylinder production technology in enterprises. Finally, this paper provides some suggestions for the development of a new generation of cylinder periodic inspection and assessment standards and points out several issues that need to be studied in focus for future standard development and implementation for reference.