Congenital heart disease (CHD), a life-threatening birth disorder, is the most common genetic disorder with an incidence rate as high as 1% in neonates (36,000 cases in 2006). Amongst these children, one out of four has single ventricle anomaly. As a palliative rather than a curative means for vascular reconstruction, the “Fontan” palliation has been used to produce stable hemodynamic states, at least for a limited period of time. However, the majority of post-Fontan patients faces a high risk of mortality and morbidity [1], and will have to undergo heart transplant eventually due to the excess load imposed on the single ventricle by the systemic resistance.

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