Robotic technology has been adopted for studying the biomechanics of the knee joint by our research center and others since 1993 to gain a fundamental understanding of the knee, as well as to provide orthopedic surgeons with scientific data on the efficacy of various reconstructive techniques [1–4]. A robotic testing system generally consists of a six degree-of-freedom (DOF) robotic manipulator with a universal force-moment sensor (UFS) attached to the end effector [5]. This testing system offers a wide range of motion with precision path and position repeatability.

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