More than 235,000 pacemakers and 130,000 implantable cardioverter defibrillators (ICD) were implanted in the United States in 2009  for the treatment of various cardiac arrhythmias. Traditional pacemakers and ICDs deliver therapy to the patient through a transvenous lead that extends from a subcutaneously-implanted pulse generator, through the subclavian or cephalic vein, the superior vena cava (SVC), and into the heart. Attachment of the distal tip of the lead into the cardiac muscle is accomplished through either an active fixation mechanism where a metal helix is screwed into the cardiac wall at the time of implantation, or a passive fixation mechanism where silicone tines are ensnared by the fibrous trabeculae within the heart. Implantation of both active and passive leads is aided by the insertion of a stylet, or thin wire, into the lead to provide additional stiffness and steerability as the device is pushed through the vasculature and to the implant site.
- Bioengineering Division
Parameters Influencing Distal Tip Loading of Pacemaker and Defibrillator Leads
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Walsh, D, Stephen, B, Duraiswamy, N, Vesnovsky, O, & Topoleski, LDT. "Parameters Influencing Distal Tip Loading of Pacemaker and Defibrillator Leads." Proceedings of the ASME 2013 Summer Bioengineering Conference. Volume 1A: Abdominal Aortic Aneurysms; Active and Reactive Soft Matter; Atherosclerosis; BioFluid Mechanics; Education; Biotransport Phenomena; Bone, Joint and Spine Mechanics; Brain Injury; Cardiac Mechanics; Cardiovascular Devices, Fluids and Imaging; Cartilage and Disc Mechanics; Cell and Tissue Engineering; Cerebral Aneurysms; Computational Biofluid Dynamics; Device Design, Human Dynamics, and Rehabilitation; Drug Delivery and Disease Treatment; Engineered Cellular Environments. Sunriver, Oregon, USA. June 26–29, 2013. V01AT20A008. ASME. https://doi.org/10.1115/SBC2013-14115
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