Irreversible electroporation (IRE) is a non-thermal focal ablation technique that uses needle electrodes to deliver a series of brief (100μs duration) electric pulses into the targeted region. These alter cellular transmembrane potentials, destabilizing the membranes in a manner that kills the cells while sparing major vasculature and other sensitive structures. IRE can therefore be used in regions ineligible for surgical resection or thermal ablation. Treatments result in rapid lesion creation and resolution , are unaffected by the blood perfusion “heat sink”, can be planned with numerical modeling , and its effects can be readily monitored with various imaging modalities . Therapeutic ire has proven effective in the treatment of experimental  and clinical tumors. A human safety study attained complete regression in 46 of 69 tumors ineligible or unresponsive to conventional treatment , and veterinary case studies convey its utility in large difficult tumors [6, 7].
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In Vivo Validation of Irreversible Electroporation Electric Field Threshold for Prostate Tissue
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Neal, RE, II, Kavnoudias, H, Rosenfeldt, F, Ou, R, Marron, J, Davalos, RV, & Thomson, KR. "In Vivo Validation of Irreversible Electroporation Electric Field Threshold for Prostate Tissue." Proceedings of the ASME 2013 Summer Bioengineering Conference. Volume 1B: Extremity; Fluid Mechanics; Gait; Growth, Remodeling, and Repair; Heart Valves; Injury Biomechanics; Mechanotransduction and Sub-Cellular Biophysics; MultiScale Biotransport; Muscle, Tendon and Ligament; Musculoskeletal Devices; Multiscale Mechanics; Thermal Medicine; Ocular Biomechanics; Pediatric Hemodynamics; Pericellular Phenomena; Tissue Mechanics; Biotransport Design and Devices; Spine; Stent Device Hemodynamics; Vascular Solid Mechanics; Student Paper and Design Competitions. Sunriver, Oregon, USA. June 26–29, 2013. V01BT42A003. ASME. https://doi.org/10.1115/SBC2013-14425
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