Research Papers

Filament-Based Fabrication and Performance Analysis of Fiber Bragg Grating Sensors Using Ultrashort Pulse Laser

[+] Author and Article Information
Farid Ahmed

Laboratory for Advanced
Multi-Scale Manufacturing,
Department of Mechanical Engineering,
University of Victoria,
P.O. Box 1700 STN CSC,
Victoria, BC V8W 3P6, Canada
e-mail: fahmed@uvic.ca

Martin B. G. Jun

Laboratory for Advanced
Multi-Scale Manufacturing,
Department of Mechanical Engineering,
University of Victoria,
P.O. Box 1700 STN CSC,
Victoria, BC V8W 3P6, Canada
e-mail: mbgjun@uvic.ca

Contributed by the Manufacturing Engineering Division of ASME for publication in the JOURNAL OF MICRO- AND NANO-MANUFACTURING. Manuscript received July 29, 2013; final manuscript received April 2, 2014; published online April 18, 2014. Assoc. Editor: Brad Nelson.

J. Micro Nano-Manuf 2(2), 021007 (Apr 18, 2014) (6 pages) Paper No: JMNM-13-1058; doi: 10.1115/1.4027368 History: Received July 29, 2013; Revised April 02, 2014

The method of ultrashort pulse filamentation induced refractive index modification is employed to inscribe fiber Bragg grating (FBG) in single-mode optical fiber (SMF). Line-by-line index inscription technique is used to write refractive index modulation in the core of SMF. The proposed pulse filamentation based index modification enables controlled and flexible writing of FBGs in optical fibers. Performance analysis of the fabricated FBG has been carried out for temperature, contact force, pressure, and axial strain sensing. The in-fiber FBG exhibits sensing performance very similar to FBGs commercially available to date. Then, the written FBG is engineered to demonstrate highly sensitive contact force sensor.

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Fig. 1

Femtosecond pulse filamentation mechanism in transparent dielectric medium

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Fig. 2

Schematic of the line-by-line fabrication of FBGs in single-mode fiber by femtosecond laser pulse filamentation

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Fig. 3

Experimental setup for fiber alignment under microscope objective and inscription of Bragg grating

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Fig. 4

Periodic indices written in borosilicate glass (thickness 150 μm) by single-shot femtosecond pulse filamentation with pulse energy of 10 μJ

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Fig. 5

Bragg resonance reflection spectrum with center wavelength at 1549.175 nm fabricated for the period of 535 nm

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Fig. 6

Bragg resonance reflection spectrum centered at 1542.40 nm for grating period of 532.50 nm. Bragg wavelength shifts when the tension is removed from the fiber after grating inscription

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Fig. 7

Demonstration of Bragg wavelength shift with the temperature variation from 21 °C to 100 °C

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Fig. 8

In-fiber Bragg gating sensor calibration for temperature from 30 °C to 100 °C

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Fig. 9

(a) Experimental setup for contact force measurement using FBG and (b) schematic showing magnified image of applying contact force onto the FBG

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Fig. 10

Calibration data for contact force measurement. The solid line represent regression calculated slope.

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Fig. 11

Sensor hysteresis curve for fiber orientation angle of θ = 0 deg showing Bragg wavelength shift for the increasing and decreasing values of contact forces

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Fig. 12

Experimental setup for pressure measurement

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Fig. 13

Calibration data for pressure measurement. The solid line represent regression calculated slope.

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Fig. 14

Experimental setup to test axial strain response of the in-fiber FBG sensor

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Fig. 15

Calibration data for axial strain measurement. The solid line represent regression calculated slope.



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