Research Papers

Integrating Computer-Aided Design and Nano-Indentation for Complex Lithograph

[+] Author and Article Information
Xiaoping Qian

e-mail: qian@iit.edu
Mechanical, Materials and Aerospace
Engineering Department,
Illinois Institute of Technology,
Chicago, IL 60062

1Corresponding author.

Contributed by the Manufacturing Engineering Division of ASME for publication in the JOURNAL OF Micro AND Nano-Manufacturing. Manuscript received February 18, 2012; final manuscript received August 28, 2012; published online March 22, 2013. Assoc. Editor: Nicholas Fang.

J. Micro Nano-Manuf 1(1), 011002 (Mar 22, 2013) (8 pages) Paper No: JMNM-12-1018; doi: 10.1115/1.4023160 History: Received February 18, 2012; Revised August 28, 2012

We present an approach for producing complex nanoscale patterns by integrating computer-aided design (CAD) geometry processing with an atomic force microscope (AFM) based nanoindentation process. Surface modification is achieved by successive nanoindentation using a vibrating tip. By incorporating CAD geometry, this approach provides enhanced design and patterning capability for producing geometric features of both straight lines and freeform B-splines. This method automatically converts a pattern created in CAD software into a lithography plan for successive nanoindentation. For ensuring reliable lithography, key machining parameters including the interval of nanoindentation and the depth of nanogrooves have been investigated, and a proper procedure for determining the parameters has been provided. Finally, the automated nanolithography has been demonstrated on poly methylmethacrylate (PMMA) samples. It shows the robustness of complex pattern fabrication via the CAD integrated, AFM based nanoindentation approach.

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Fig. 1

Overview of the nano lithography system

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Fig. 2

Process of the point-based lithography (a) approaching and contacting (b) indenting and withdrawing (c) amplitude signal during nanoindentation (d) deflection signal during nanoindentation (e) topography signal during nanoindentation

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Fig. 3

(a) 3D AFM image of a single hole fabricated by nano indentation process and (b) dependence of the hole radius to deflection threshold

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Fig. 4

Line fabrication with the interval of 0.5 R, R, and 2 R and height profiles along the lines

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Fig. 5

Line depths for 20 random points of each line according to the deflection threshold from 0.005 V to 0.055 V

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Fig. 6

AFM image and the depth profile of each nanogroove

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Fig. 7

Pause time for both before indentation tp1 in X-Y piezo and after indentation tp2 in Z piezo

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Fig. 8

Pause time after nanoindentation to guarantee tip withdraw

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Fig. 9

Typical CAD model of a line and a curve (a) drawing; (b) generating points from lines and B-spline curves; (c) indentation points generation

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Fig. 10

B-spline curve representation using the Cox-de Boor algorithm

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Fig. 11

“IIT NANO CAM” fabricated by point-based lithography (a) drawing in AutoCAD, (b) topography image, (c) path generation, (d) lithography plan for a letter “M”

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Fig. 12

Continuous angel pattern (a) drawing in AutoCAD (b) lithography plan for wing part (c) topography image (d) cross section of wing part



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