Research Papers

Excimer Laser Micromachining Using Binary Mask Projection for Large Area Patterning With Single Micrometer Features

[+] Author and Article Information
Govind Dayal, S. Anantha Ramakrishna

Department of Physics,
Indian Institute of Technology Kanpur,
Kanpur 208016, India

Syed Nadeem Akhtar

Department of Mechanical Engineering,
Indian Institute of Technology Kanpur,
Kanpur 208016, India

J. Ramkumar

Department of Mechanical Engineering,
Indian Institute of Technology Kanpur,
Kanpur 208016, India
e-mail: jrkumar@iitk.ac.in

1Corresponding author.

Contributed by the Manufacturing Engineering Division of ASME for publication in the JOURNAL OF MICRO- AND Nano-Manufacturing. Manuscript received July 3, 2012; final manuscript received June 20, 2013; published online August 9, 2013. Assoc. Editor: Ashutosh Sharma.

J. Micro Nano-Manuf 1(3), 031002 (Aug 09, 2013) (7 pages) Paper No: JMNM-12-1037; doi: 10.1115/1.4024880 History: Received July 03, 2012; Revised June 20, 2013

Excimer laser micromachining using binary mask projection has been investigated for rapid patterning of single micrometer features over large areas of various substrates. Simple limit for depth of focus that determines the depth to width aspect ratios is given and verified for different materials. Binary mask projection technique is found to conformally reproduce the mask features from the millimetre to the micrometer scale under proper focusing conditions. Large arrays of 1 μm and 15 μm holes on Kapton are made with high resolution and uniform periodicity. Material removal rate (MRR) for the laser machining of these holes are examined and the machining efficiency for these are found to have different dependence on the fluence. A saturation of hole-depth with increasing number of pulses is obtained.

Copyright © 2013 by ASME
Your Session has timed out. Please sign back in to continue.


Manz, A., Graber, N., and Widmer, H. M., 1990, “Miniaturized Total Chemical Analysis Systems: A Novel Concept for Chemical Sensing,” Sens. Actuators B, 1(1-6), pp. 244–248. [CrossRef]
Boenke, A., and Meier, D. J., 2009, “Method to Manufacture High-Precision RFID Straps and RFID Antennas Using Laser,” U.S. Patent No. 7,510,985 B1.
Minagawa, M., Kanda, N., Sakama, I., Sagawa, S., and Shibata, D., 2012, “RFID Inlet and RFID Tag, and Method for Manufacturing RFID Inlet and RFID Tag,” U.S. Patent No. 2012/0024959 A1.
Drayton, R. F., and Katehi, L. P. B., 1994, “Development of Miniature Microwave Circuit Components Using Micromachining Techniques,” Microwave Symposium Digest, IEEE MTT-S International, IEEE, pp. 225–228.
Dubuc, D., Grenier, K., Fujita, H., and Toshiyoshi, H., 2009, “Plastic-Based Microfabrication of Artificial Dielectric for Miniaturized Microwave Integrated Circuits,” Metamaterials, 3(3), pp. 165–173. [CrossRef]
Watts, C. M., Liu, X., and Padilla, W. J., 2012, “Metamaterial Electromagnetic Wave Absorbers,” Adv. Mater., 24(23), pp. 98–120. [CrossRef]
Helvajian, H., 2010, “Process Control in Laser Material Processing for the Micro and Nanometer Scale Domains,” Laser Precision Microfabrication, K.Sugioka, M.Meunier, A.Piqué, eds., Vol. 135 of Springer Series in Materials Science, Springer, Berlin, pp. 1–34.
Kawamura, Y., Kai, A., and Yoshii, K., 2010, “Various Kinds of Pulsed Ultraviolet Laser Micromachinings Using a Five Axis Microstage,” J. Laser Micro/Nanoeng., 5(2), pp. 163–168. [CrossRef]
Meijer, J., Du, K., Gillner, A., Hoffmann, D., Kovalenko, V. S., Masuzawa, T., Ostendorf, A., Poprawe, R., and Schulz, W., 2002, “Laser Machining by Short and Ultrashort Pulses, State of the Art and New Opportunities in the Age of the Photons,” CIRP Ann. – Manuf. Technol., 5(2), pp. 531–550. [CrossRef]
Harvey, E. C., Rumsby, P. T., Gower, M. C., and Remnant, J. L., 1995, “Microstructuring by Excimer Laser,” Micromach. Microfabr. Process Technol., 2639, pp. 266–277. [CrossRef]
Ihlemann, J., Schmidt, H., and Wolff-Rottke, B., 1993, “Excimer Laser Micromachining,” Adv. Mater. Opt. Electron., 2, pp. 87–92. [CrossRef]
Chen, T. C., and Darling, R. B., 2005, “Parametric Studies on Pulsed Near Ultraviolet Frequency Tripled Nd:YAG Laser Micromachining of Sapphire and Silicon,” J. Mater. Process. Technol., 169, pp. 214–218. [CrossRef]
Zhang, J., Sugioka, K., Wada, S., Tashiro, H., Toyoda, K., and Midorikawa, K., 1998, “Precise Microfabrication of Wide Band Gap Semiconductors (SiC and GaN) by VUV-UV Multiwavelength Laser Ablation,” Appl. Surf. Sci., 127, pp. 793–799. [CrossRef]
Jha, H., Kikuchi, T., Sakairi, M., and Takahashi, H., 2007, “Laser Micromachining of Porous Anodic Alumina Film,” Appl. Phys. A, 88, pp. 617–622. [CrossRef]
Zhang, X., Chu, S. S., Ho, J. R., and Grigoropoulos, C. P., 1997, “Excimer Laser Ablation of Thin Gold Films on a Quartz Crystal Microbalance at Various Argon Background Pressures,” Appl. Phys. A, 64, pp. 545–552. [CrossRef]
Gower, M., and Rizvi, N., 2002, Applications of Laser Ablation to Microengineering, Exitech Limited, Oxford.
Gower, M., 2002, Excimer Laser Microfabrication and Micromachining, Exitech Limited, Oxford.
Riccardi, G., Cantello, M., Mariotti, F., and Giacosa, P., 1998, “Micromachining With Excimer Laser,” Ann. CIRP, 47(1), pp. 145–148. [CrossRef]
Lazare, S., and Tokarev, V., 2004, “Recent Experimental and Theoretical Advances in Microdrilling of Polymers With Ultraviolet Laser Beams,” Proc. SPIE, 5662, pp. 221–231. [CrossRef]
Windholz, R., and Molian, P., 1997, “Nanosecond Pulsed Excimer Laser Machining of CVD Diamond and HOPG Graphite,” J. Mater. Sci., 32, pp. 4295–4301. [CrossRef]
Shirk, M. D., and Molian, P. A., 1998, “Ultrashort Laser Ablation of Diamond,” J. Laser Appl., 10(2), pp. 64–70. [CrossRef]
Rizvi, N. H., 2002, Production of Novel 3D Microstructures Using Excimer Laser Mask Projection Techniques, Exitech Limited, Oxford.
Kopitkovas, G., Lippert, T., David, C., Wokaun, A., and Gobrecht, J., 2004, “Surface Micromachining of UV Transparent Materials,” Thin Solid Films, 453-454, pp. 31–35. [CrossRef]
Hayden, C. J., Eijkel, J. C. T., and Dalton, C., 2004, “An Alternative Method of Fabricating Sub-Micron Resolution Masks Using Excimer Laser Ablation,” J. Micromech. Microeng., 14, pp. 826–831. [CrossRef]
Burt, J. P. H., Goater, A. D., Hayden, C. J., and Tame, J. A., 2002, “Laser Micromachining of Biofactory-on-a-Chip Devices,” Proc. SPIE, 4637, pp. 305–317. [CrossRef]
Terasawa, T., Hasegawa, N., Kurosaki, T., and Tanaka, T., 1989, “0.3-Micron Optical Lithography Using a Phase-Shifting Mask,” Proc. SPIE, 1088, pp. 25–33. [CrossRef]
Wang, M. H., and Zhu, D., 2009, “Fabrication of Multiple Electrodes and Their Application for Micro-Holes Array in ECM,” Int. J. Adv. Manuf. Technol., 41, pp. 42–47. [CrossRef]
Chen, S. T., and Liao, Y. S., “A Novel Approach for Batch Production of Micro Holes by Micro EDM, 4M 2007 Conference, Borovets, Bulgaria.”
Zhu, D., Qu, N. S., Li, H. S., Zeng, Y. B., Li, D. L., and Qian, S. Q., 2009, “Electrochemical Micromachining of Microstructures of Micro Hole and Dimple Array,” CIRP Ann. – Manuf. Technol., 58, pp. 177–180. [CrossRef]
Jahan, M. P., Rahman, M., Wong, Y. S., and Fuhua, L., 2010, “On-Machine Fabrication of High-Aspect-Ratio Micro-Electrodes and Application in Vibration-Assisted Micro-Electrodischarge Drilling of Tungsten Carbide,” J. Eng. Manuf., 224, pp. 795–814. [CrossRef]
Jensen, M., 2004, “Laser Micromachining of Polymers,” Ph.D. thesis, Technical University of Denmark, Denmark.
Coherent, Inc., 2011, “VarioLas for UV Microprocessing Laser Applications,” http://www.coherent.com/products/?1043/VarioLas-Family
Whitesides, G. M., 2006, “The Origins and the Future of Microfluidics,” Nature, 442, pp. 368–373. [CrossRef] [PubMed]
Zhang, W., Yao, Y. L., and Chen, K., 2001, “Modelling and Analysis of UV Laser Micromachining of Copper,” Int. J. Adv. Manuf. Technol., 18, pp. 323–331. [CrossRef]
Jiang, C. Y., Lau, W. S., Yue, T. M., and Chiang, L., 1993, “On the Maximum Depth and Profile of Cut of Pulsed Nd-YAG Laser Machining,” CIRP Ann. – Manuf. Technol., 42, pp. 223–226. [CrossRef]


Grahic Jump Location
Fig. 3

Schematic diagram showing the resolution of imaging two distinct spots about the focal plane of two adjacent focused beams

Grahic Jump Location
Fig. 2

Optical microscopic images of the micromachined structures on a Kapton sheet placed at various planes above and below the focal plane. The blurring of features and lack of resolution is clear when the workpiece is kept away from the focal plane. Scale: 8 units = 10 μm.

Grahic Jump Location
Fig. 1

Schematic diagram of the experimental setup for laser machining

Grahic Jump Location
Fig. 4

Optical microscopic images of the through slots intersecting at 45 deg machined through 30 μm thick Kapton sheets. The widths of the lines from left to right panels are 100 μm, 10 μm, and 1 μm, respectively.

Grahic Jump Location
Fig. 5

Transmission (left) and reflection (right) optical microscopic images of 3 μm and 4 μm diameter holes in Aluminium and boPET, respectively

Grahic Jump Location
Fig. 6

Optical microscopic images of 12 slots of 1 μm width and 150 μm length with interslot distance of 1 μm machined on a 30 μm thick Kapton sheet. Eight units of the scale correspond to 10 μm. The right panel shows the corresponding atomic force micrograph showing the topography of the image.

Grahic Jump Location
Fig. 7

Left panel: Optical microscopic image of arrays of 2 μm diameter holes with a period of 4 μm machined on a Kapton sheet. Middle panel shows the topography of the sample measured by AFM. Right panel: The SEM image of an array of 1 μm holes with 2 μm period. These large scale arrays have a total array area of 1 mm × 1 mm with excellent uniformity throughout.

Grahic Jump Location
Fig. 8

Transmission optical microscopic image of a complex network of channels machined on chrome coated glass using excimer laser

Grahic Jump Location
Fig. 9

Plot showing the depth of the `holes in an array of 1 μm holes machined at various energies and with 5, 10, or 15 pulses

Grahic Jump Location
Fig. 10

Material removal rate with respect to laser pulse parameters. (a) The panel on the left shows the machined hole-depths with respect to the number of pulses at various pulse energies and (b) the panel on the right shows the same data against the total energy = pulse energy × the number of pulses. (The lines shown are only a guide to the eye.)



Some tools below are only available to our subscribers or users with an online account.

Related Content

Customize your page view by dragging and repositioning the boxes below.

Related Journal Articles
Related eBook Content
Topic Collections

Sorry! You do not have access to this content. For assistance or to subscribe, please contact us:

  • TELEPHONE: 1-800-843-2763 (Toll-free in the USA)
  • EMAIL: asmedigitalcollection@asme.org
Sign In