Research Papers

Bubble Formation Modeling During Laser Direct Writing of Glycerol Solutions

[+] Author and Article Information
Ruitong Xiong, Zhengyi Zhang

Department of Mechanical
and Aerospace Engineering,
University of Florida,
Gainesville, FL 32611

Jianxin Shen

College of Mechanical
and Electrical Engineering,
Nanjing University of Aeronautics and Astronautics,
Nanjing, Jiangsu 210016, China

Yafu Lin

Department of Mechanical Engineering,
Clemson University,
Clemson, SC 29634

Yong Huang

Department of Mechanical
and Aerospace Engineering,
University of Florida,
Gainesville, FL 32611
e-mail: yongh@ufl.edu

Douglas B. Chrisey

Department of Physics and Engineering Physics,
Tulane University,
New Orleans, LA 70118

1Corresponding author.

Contributed by the Manufacturing Engineering Division of ASME for publication in the JOURNAL OF MICRO- AND NANO-MANUFACTURING. Manuscript received May 1, 2014; final manuscript received November 25, 2014; published online December 15, 2014. Assoc. Editor: Stefan Dimov.

J. Micro Nano-Manuf 3(1), 011004 (Mar 01, 2015) (7 pages) Paper No: JMNM-14-1035; doi: 10.1115/1.4029264 History: Received May 01, 2014; Revised November 25, 2014; Online December 15, 2014

Laser direct writing, a noncontact modified laser-induced forward transfer (LIFT) technique, has emerged as a promising technology for various applications from microelectronics printing to biofabrication. For it to be a viable technology, the bubble formation process during laser direct writing should be carefully examined. In this study, the bubble formation process during the laser direct writing of glycerol–water solutions has been studied using a nucleation-based phase explosion modeling approach. The effects of laser fluence and material properties of glycerol solution on the resulting bubble geometry have been examined both analytically and experimentally. Overall, a satisfactory modeling accuracy has been achieved, while the proposed modeling approach slightly underestimates the bubble diameter. Both the measured and predicted bubble diameters increase when the laser fluence increases. Interestingly, the measured and predicted diameters first decrease, then increase, and decrease again with the increase of glycerol concentration. Furthermore, it is noted that the bubble diameter is more sensitive to the laser fluence than the glycerol concentration.

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Fig. 1

Modeling approach for bubble formation during laser direct writing

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Fig. 2

Phase diagram on binodal, spinodal, and metastable states

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Fig. 3

Experimental setup for bubble formation observation

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Fig. 4

(a) Representative image of a bubble (84 μm in diameter) during the direct writing of 85% glycerol solution under a 722 mJ/cm2 laser fluence and (b) printing schematic

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Fig. 5

Maximum bubble diameter as a function of laser fluence for a 85% glycerol solution (error bars indicating ± one standard deviation)

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Fig. 6

Maximum bubble diameter as a function of glycerol concentration under a 722 mJ/cm2 laser fluence (error bars indicating ± one standard deviation)

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Fig. 7

Equivalent diameter coefficient as a function of glycerol concentration



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