Research Papers

Electrospray Ionization of Polymers: Evaporation, Drop Fission, and Deposited Particle Morphology1

[+] Author and Article Information
Marriner H. Merrill

Naval Research Laboratory,
4555 Overlook Avenue, SW,
Washington, DC 20375
e-mail: marriner.merrill@nrl.navy.mil

William R. Pogue, III

Naval Research Laboratory,
4555 Overlook Avenue, SW,
Washington, DC 20375
e-mail: willie.pogue@nrl.navy.mil

Jared N. Baucom

Naval Research Laboratory,
4555 Overlook Avenue, SW,
Washington, DC 20735

1Paper presented at the 2014 ASME International Mechanical Engineering Congress and Exposition (IMECE), Montreal, Canada, November 14–20, 2014, Paper No. IMECE2014-37119.

2Former employee.

Contributed by the Manufacturing Engineering Division of ASME for publication in the JOURNAL OF MICRO- AND NANO-MANUFACTURING. Manuscript received August 20, 2014; final manuscript received September 4, 2014; published online December 3, 2014. Editor: Jian Cao. This material is declared a work of the U.S. Government and is not subject to copyright protection in the United States. Approved for public release; distribution is unlimited.

J. Micro Nano-Manuf 3(1), 011003 (Mar 01, 2015) (7 pages) Paper No: JMNM-14-1059; doi: 10.1115/1.4028505 History: Received August 20, 2014; Revised September 04, 2014; Online December 03, 2014

The fundamental challenge of nanomanufacturing is to create, control, and place immense quantities of nanoscale objects controllably over large surface areas. Electrospray ionization (ESI) has the potential to address this challenge due to its simplicity, applicability to a broad range of materials, and intrinsic scalability. However, the interactions between electrospray parameters and final deposited morphology are not well understood. Experimental results are combined with physics-based models to explain how observed particle size distributions are caused in the spray by evaporation and Coulomb fission of drops with solute concentration gradients.

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Grahic Jump Location
Fig. 1

Electrosprayed particles imaged at 5000 × for the five cases run. Scale bar is 1 μm. Numbers correspond to Table 1.

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Fig. 2

Size distribution for particles at 5 cm nozzle-substrate separation for 0.5% and 0.1% solutions

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Fig. 3

Electrosprayed particle distributions for 0.1% (left) and 0.5% (right) solutions. The image is at a magnification of 20,000 × (1 μm scale bar) with an inset at 100,000 × (100 nm scale bar).

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Fig. 4

Electrosprayed particles showing faint traces indicative of small secondary particles with diameters on the order of a few nanometers (0.5% solution, 1 cm nozzle-substrate distance, and scale bar is 100 nm)

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Fig. 5

Montage of the different particle morphologies observed. Top shows round particles, middle shows various rod-shaped particles, and bottom shows comet-shaped particles (one- and two-sided). Scale bar is 1 μm.

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Fig. 6

Eye region for 0.5% solution sprayed at 1 cm nozzle-substrate distance. Image is at 5000 × with inset at 20,000 ×. Both scale bars are 1 μm.

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Fig. 7

The deposited spray regions observed for 3 cm nozzle-substrate spacing, from left to right, the image is taken at the spray center, 15 mm, 20 mm from center. Images all at 5000 ×, with scale bar of 1 μm (0.5% solution).

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Fig. 8

The Taylor cone and initial jet for 0.1% PAA (left) and 0.5% PAA (right) solutions at 3 cm nozzle-substrate distance. Scale bar is 0.1 mm.

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Fig. 9

Schematic of particle morphology caused by the balance of surface charge with concentration (viscosity)



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